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23 mars 2015 1 23 /03 /mars /2015 05:50

Le 14 mars dernier, à l'hôpital de Moscou, mourait le grand écrivain Valentin Raspoutine. Après un dernier hommage à la Cathédrale du Christ Sauveur le mercredi 18 mars,rendu notamment par les plus hautes autorités religieuse et politique du pays, il a été enterré à Irkoutsk (il a toujours vécu en Sibérie centrale). Chantre de la force des sociétés traditionnelles, il s'était vigoureusement opposé, dans les années 60 et 70 du siècle dernier, aux plans d'inversion des cours des fleuves Ob et Ienisseï pour irriguer les monocultures du coton d'Asie centrale après la mort de la mer d'Aral, et au gigantesque complexe de transformation du papier qui allait polluer le lac Baïkal. J'avais été particulièrement marqué par la lecture de son roman le plus célèbre, "L'Adieu à Matera",1976, traduit dans sa version française parue en 1979 chez Robert Laffont par "L'Adieu à l'Ile". L'ile et son village vont être engloutis sous les eaux d'un barrage, et le livre décrit la vie des derniers mois des habitants avant cet évènement, Ceux - ci incarnent la civilisation, et les ouvriers du chantier représentent la barbarie. Dans cet univers, vivants et morts se côtoient dans une continuité où le temps n'existe pas.L'ile représente la totalité du Monde, qui va être engloutie dans une apocalypse technocratique. Par delà les êtres humains, les deux personnages principaux sont "le maître de l'ile", petit carnivore sauvage à l'espèce non définie, et un vieux et gigantesque mélèze indestructible. Cet Espace "Cosmos" s'identifie au "poisson - baleine" des mythes slaves, illustré notamment en 1834 dans le conte de Piotr Erchov "Konyok gorbunok", qui porte villages et territoires sur son dos. A la fois créateur et protecteur du Monde, il est un avatar d'Edinor, le rhinocéros moussu dont tout procède, et de l'esturgeon primordial, ancêtre des slaves, avec lesquels il constitue en quelque sorte une Sainte Trinité. A ce titre, l'hommage à Valentin Raspoutine concerne aussi L'ATLANTIDE RUSSE et sa dizaine de cités englouties au cours du siècle dernier, qui forment un pays sous - marin artificiel : Mologa, Vessegonsk, Kaliazine, Kortcheva, Stavropol sur Volga, Poutchej, Berdsk, Spassk - Tatarski, Chagonar... et qui prolongent les cachalots combattants, soldats morts pour la même patrie au siècle précédent (Epopée salvatrice, sur ce blog le 18 janvier dernier). De même, Valentin Raspoutine s'identifiait PHYSIQUEMENT à la Sibérie, et la constituait. Il était aussi un Passeur, dans l'acception pleinement shamanique du terme (voir "Ofelas" 1987. Film norvégien de Nils Gaup). Comme Bernanos a prolongé Dostoïevski, des amis sortent de l'ombre à sa place.

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21 mars 2015 6 21 /03 /mars /2015 06:58

Le programme de réimplantation de tigres des neiges à l'état sauvage s'intensifie. "Cassandra the tiger brought from Gelendzhik to Primorye", publié hier sur

http://programmes.putin.kremlin.ru/en/tiger/news#

Cassandra, a female Amur tiger, has arrived in Primorye from the Gelendzhik Zoo. Scientists are going to conduct a unique experiment to increase the tiger population.

“The five-year-old female tiger born in Gelendzhik will participate in the programme to preserve the population of Amur tigers in Russia’s Far East,” said Viktor Serdyuk, a representative of the Tiger Special Inspection. “Researchers at the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution and the Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Primorye will experiment with crossbreeding a tiger born in captivity and a tiger born in the wild. The offspring will be raised to live in the wild and released once they reach the age of two.”

According to Serdyuk, when the tiger cubs are four or five months old, Cassandra will be sent back home while her little ones will live at the rehabilitation centre in conditions close to those in nature. They will be collared with tracking devices for scientists to observe them after the cubs reach the age of two and are released.

“This is the first experiment of its kind. If the tiger cubs adapt to the wild, the experiment will be successful. We will then be able to try a similar method to restore the population of these wild felines,” Viktor Serdyuk added.

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19 mars 2015 4 19 /03 /mars /2015 19:41

4 des 5 jeunes tigres relâchés dans le Primorye, la région de Khabarovsk et la région autonome juive se sont bien adaptés à la vie sauvage. Le cinquième des "Putin tigers" qui avait tué des animaux domestiques dans des zones frontalières chinoises, avait été recapturé. Moscow Times, ce jour. "Putin tigers" love life in the wild, environmentalists say.

http://www.themoscowtimes.com/arts_n_ideas/news/article/putins-tigers-loving-life-in-wild-russia-environmentalists-say/517713.html

Four of the five Amur tigers known as "Putin's tigers" have successfully adapted to life in the wild, a news report said Thursday.

The four tigers are all in good health and have settled down in the Primorye, Khabarovsk and the Jewish autonomous regions in Russia's Far East, the RIA Novosti news agency said Thursday, citing a spokesperson for the federal Amur tiger conservation body, Viktor Serdyuk.

Amur tigers Ustin, Kuzya, Borya, Ilona and Svetlaya were found as orphaned cubs in the Siberian taiga in 2013 and reared back to health at an animal reserve. Last year President Vladimir Putin personally released three of the tigers back into the wild, earning them the nickname "Putin's tigers."

One of the felines, Ustin, soon made headlines after he crossed the Amur River into China and proceeded to cause mayhem in country, leaving a bloody trail of slaughtered livestock in his wake.

He was taken into captivity in December to prevent further killing sprees.

"Ustin would have also adapted to life in the wild had he not gone to China," Serdyuk told RIA, adding the overall experiment should be considered a success.

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19 mars 2015 4 19 /03 /mars /2015 06:37

La Chine prépare une méthodologie spécifique pour la protection des tigres de l'Amour présents dans le Nord Est du pays. Un recensement va également être lancé (estimation préalable : une trentaine d'individus). Ecns.cn, ce jour. China Daily. Mo Hong'e. China set to count its wild siberian tigers.

http://www.ecns.cn/2015/03-19/158640.shtml

China is going to conduct a national survey of wild tigers to provide bases for their research and management, said a senior official of the country's wildlife watchdog.

"The tiger is one of our working priorities," said Zhao Shucong, head of the State Forestry Administration.

"We are planning an overall tiger protection program with local governments from Northeastern China and experts from Beijing Normal University, Peking University, the Academy of Forestry, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, etc.

"During the process, China will enhance its cooperation with the World Wide Fund for Nature which has cooperated closely with China since the giant panda program," Zhao said.

Zhao was speaking as he received a WWF award as one of its Leaders for a Living Planet on Wednesday. The award was given for his and his administration's outstanding contribution to the conservation of the natural world and sustainable development.

China has carried out a national survey on the giant panda's status and its habitat every 10 years since the 1970s. Experts have been calling to have the same census for the Siberian tiger, which mainly lives in the northeastern part of China. It is estimated there are only 30 left alive.

During the two sessions, President Xi Jinping heard a report that the number of tigers had increased to 27 in Jilin province and emphasized the ongoing need for practical conservation work to be done in the field.

Xie Zhongyan, director of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve Administrative Committee, said Siberian tigers not only increased in Jilin province but also appear to be a family, showing a breeding trend.

Shi Quanhua, head of the Asia Big Cats Program of WWF China, said a full census can help to ensure that Siberian tigers have the space, food and protection they require to thrive.

Un bien n'effaçant jamais un mal, le Gardian mentionne aujourd'hui un rapport "révélant" (ce n'est une surprise pour personne) qu'au Laos, il y a table ouverte avec viande de tigre et patte d'ours pour les touristes chinois.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/19/tiger-meat-and-bear-paws-on-menu-for-chinese-tourists-in-laos-says-report

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17 mars 2015 2 17 /03 /mars /2015 08:11

UN GRAND MERCI A L'EXCELLENT PIERRE - OLIVIER COMBELLES, QUI M'A TRANSMIS L'INFORMATION.

Un lion a été observé au Gabon pour la première fois depuis près de 20 ans, au grand étonnement de tous, et notamment de spécialistes comme Philipp Henschel, qui avait mis en lumière la situation désastreuse de ces animaux en Afrique de l'Ouest, dans une publication du 2 Janvier 2014. Metatv.org, hier. Un lion vu au Gabon pour la première fois depuis près de 20 ans. L'évènement est presque aussi spectaculaire que l'apparition d'une lion dans le Cachemire Pakistanais au début d'année dernière (Dawn, 2 février 2014). L'animal apparaît soudain, et CONSTITUE LA CRISTALLISATION du paysage lui - même : UNE COSMOPHANIE LEONINE.

Un lion vu au Gabon pour la première fois depuis près de 20 ans

Le lion n’est pas mort ce soir. Au Gabon, on ne s’attendait plus à voir le roi des animaux rôder. C’est pourtant bien un lion qui a été filmé par des caméras dans le sud-est du pays, rapporte l’agence Reuters. Depuis le mois de janvier, le même animal a été filmé à trois reprises par les caméras installées pour étudier les chimpanzés. Le lion a élu domicile dans le parc national des plateaux Batéké, sur la frontière entre le Gabon et le Congo.

Baptisé Ali en hommage au président

«Au départ, je n'arrivais pas à le croire, a déclaré le docteur Philipp Henschel, coordinateur d'un programme de recensement des lions pour l'ONG Panthera. Et puis je me suis rendu sur place pour poser d'autres caméras, dans l'espoir qu'il y ait d'autres lions.» D’après lui, l’animal pourrait venir de République démocratique du Congo après avoir traversé le fleuve Congo. La dernière fois qu’un lion avait été vu au Gabon, c’était en 1996 et il s’agissait d’une femelle.

Ce mâle pourrait être baptisé Ali, en hommage au président du Gabon Ali Bongo, a précisé Philipp Henschel. Car dans la famille Bongo, on aime les fauves: Omar Bongo, père de l’actuel président, avait un tigre pour animal de compagnie. Depuis l’arrivée au pouvoir d’Ali Bongo, le Gabon a renforcé sa lutte contre le braconnage dans ses parcs naturels, qui abritent notamment des éléphants et des gorilles.

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16 mars 2015 1 16 /03 /mars /2015 10:14

Voici un article paru dans Cat News en 1999, dont j'ignorais l'existence jusqu'à ce matin. Il met en lumière la possibilité, fondée sur de nombreux témoignages, de la présence de tigres sur cette île, au moins jusqu'en 1995, évoquant même l'existence d'un individu captif sur une plantation, uniformément brun et aux stries très peu apparentes. Historiquement (et indépendamment d'une souche endémique) l'importation de tigres de Sumatra à Borneo par les sultans de Sarawak et de Brunei est tout aussi vraisemblable que celle, clairement avérée, de tigres de Corée au Japon dès le 9ème siècle. Ayant déjà souligné un vraisemblable maintien du tigre dans les zones montagneuses du centre de Java (Bambang Muryanto, dans le Jakarta Post du 2 Juin 2012)*, je crois utile de porter ce travail à la connaissance d'un large public (j'ai mis les passages les plus explicites et troublants en caractères distincts). Le tigre était aussi présent juste au Nord de Bornéo, dans l'île philippine de Palawan, il y a des milliers d'années (Piper et collaborateurs 2008).

*D'après des études du début des années 2010, le Tigre de Java pourrait constituer une ESPECE à part entière, le tigre de Bali étant une simple sous espèce de celui - ci...Les lecteurs réguliers de ce blog connaissent mon point de vue sur la question. Je tiens ces divisions soit disant scientifiques comme des fumisteries d'imbéciles malhonnêtes . Il existe un tigre continental eurasien voire afroeurasien (avec des variétés géographiques) et un tigre du sous continent Sunda, qui a démultiplié ses variétés après la transformation de celui - ci en archipel nippo - philippo - australasien. De ce point de vue, il est recevable à mes yeux de reconnaître le tigre de Bali comme une variété de celui de Java. Carlos driscoll a étudié cela sur le plan génétique, en vue d'un réensemencement potentiel généralisé des îles indonésiennes.

Cat News 30 pages 12-15 Spring 1999
The Bornean Tiger; Speculation on its E
xistence
by Erik MEIAARD.


This short note presents and discusses references to the occurrence of the tiger
Panthera tigris (Linn.) on the island of Borneo.

There is no scientific evidence to support the theory that tigers occur naturally on Borneo
(Medway 1977). However, tiger skins (Hose and McDougall 1912, Sellato 1995), skulls
(Nieuwenhuis 1904, Banks 1931), and canine teeth (Peranio 1960, Puri 1992 pers. obs.)
have been observed in the possession of indigenous communities of the Sarawak interior
and in West and East Kalimantan. Medway (1977) believed that these items had been
imported.


Hooijer (1963) states that the recovery of the tip of an unerupted upper tiger canine from
a superficial level in the excavation at the Niah cave in Sarawak (no. 1) suggests that the
tiger may have been, until comparatively recently, a member of the native fauna.
Unfortunately, Hooijer does not go into detail of how he identified this find. Remains
from deeper levels in the cave had not been found in 1977 to corroborate the case
(Medway 1977), and I am not aware of any finds since then.


One skull apparently existed in the Natural History Museum in London earlier this
century and was labelled as "Borneo" (see Note). However, this skull may have been
mislabelled. Furthermore, there is documentary evidence of tiger parts being introduced
to Borneo by man. Nieuwenhuis, a Dutch anthropologist, brought tiger skulls and teeth
from Java to Borneo as presents for tribal leaders of the upper Mahakam and Kapuas
rivers in East and West Kalimantan respectively (Nieuwenhuis 1904).


Several authors mention evidence that the peoples of Borneo are at least very well aware
of the tiger. In his study area in interior East Kalimantan (no. 2), Puri (1992) noted that
tiger parts play an important role for the Penan and Kenyah people. Tiger teeth were used
by community leaders for lie detecting and were considered to be very powerful. Only
after 10 months did Puri get to see a set of six of them. Nieuwenhuis (1904) pointed out
the great importance of tigers in traditional Bornean arts and religion; so much was the
tiger worshipped and/or feared that it would generally be referred to only by a lesser
name, ‘aso’ or ‘dog’.
Sellato (1995) in his zoo-linguistical study reports that most Dayak languages have a
specific term to refer to the tiger that is quite distinct from other cats, such as the clouded
leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Also the Aoheng, a Bornean tribe of the upper Sungai
Mahakam (Sungai = River, hereafter abbreviated as ‘S’) (no. 3), are aware of a number of
details pertaining to the tiger’s habitat and habits. This suggests that the tiger may have
occurred on Borneo in the past, or that the people who populated Borneo came from a
region of South East Asia where tigers existed (Sellato 1983, 1995).


Abbott (in Lyon 1911), a respected zoologist, actually believed that tigers existed in his
study area in west Borneo (no. 4). Based on local narratives he thought that a much larger
cat than the clouded leopard occurred. He thought it to be very rare, as few whom he met
had ever seen it. Also Witkamp (1932) refers to tigers, which were claimed to
occur in
the ‘Tjina-batangan’ area (no. 5) in northern Borneo in the Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor
Nederlands Indië of 1857. Finally, Gersi (1975) produced evidence of tigers on Borneo.
He claimed not only to have seen a tiger near the S. Belayan (no. 6) in East Kalimantan,
but he also took photographs of the animal. The two photos in his book clearly depict
tigers. His explanation for this sighting was that in the past the sul
tans of Sarawak, Sabah, or Brunei must have imported these tigers from elsewhere. This explanation was
considered scarcely plausible by Medway (1977), who thought that this report (if
authentic) could only be evidence of a surviving indigenous publication. In his book,
Gersi (1975) further states that the nomadic Punan people of Borneo knew of a large,
striped cat species that, unlike the clou
ded leopard, did not climb trees.
During four years of fieldwork in many locations on Borneo I have come across a
considerable number of alleged tiger sightings. The most recent tiger report came from
the area between S. Pari and S. Hanyu in Central Kalimantan (no. 7), where a tiger was
said to have been heard in 1995, although no one managed to see it. The interviewees

asserted that they knew the roaring of the tiger well enough to discern it from other
animals. One Punan hunter told me he had had a clear tiger sighting on a logging road
near the S. Belayan in East Kalimantan (no. 8) in the early 1990s. Another informant said
he had seen a captive young tiger in a logging concession, near Bengalon in East
Kalimantan (no. 9). This animal was described as being diffe
rent from both the Sumatran
tiger and the clouded leopard, BY BEING LARGELY BROWN-COLOURED WITH ONLY FAINT STRIPES.
In the Central Kalimantan village of Tangiran (no. 10), old people told of a large striped
cat different from the clouded leopard. One tooth was shown; it was said to be between one and two centuries old and once belonged to a tiger that lived in the vicinity of the village. Finally, one sighting was reported from the PT Domas Raya logging concession and dated back to 1987/88 (no. 11). Again it was said that the animal was faintly striped, and th
e size of a Sumatran tiger.


Apart from the above useful records, the interviewee in the PT Domas Raya logging
concession told a more fanciful story. He stated that the local tiger lived in a cave and
would only come out in the seventh month of the year. It was thought to be associated
with hermits and ascetics who could take on th
e shape of this animal. The animal was
said to only occur in the mountains and not in lowlands like the Sumatran tiger. A.H.
Everett recorded similar traditions in which tigers were associated with caves (Banks
1931). These stories were centred on the Pupok Hill (no. 12), Serambo (no. 13), and
Bukit Rimong (no. 14), and mostly concerned a flying variety of the tiger that made
weird noises in caves at certain seasons of the year (Banks,1931).


Discussion
It is impossible to judge the significance of the reported tiger sightings. Mjöberg (1930)
already wondered about the apparent absence of tigers on Borneo, and it is indeed a
mystery why the tiger appears absent from the island. The species occurs in a variety of
habitats and seems to be very adaptable to different ecological conditions. On Borneo,
prey species, such as sambar Cervus unicolor, bearded pigs S
us barbatus, or muntjaks
Muntiacus spp. are common (pers. obs.), and, at present, there does not seem to be an
ecological factor on Borneo preventing the tiger’s survival.


I hereby postulate four theories that could provide explanations for the tiger’s absence
from, or the presence on, Borneo:


1. Tigers never occurred on Borneo
The island of Borneo has been connected to Sumatra and Java several times during the
Pleistocene when lower sea levels exposed the Sunda shelf. It is generally assumed that
during the glacials most faunal exchanges between the islands occurred (e.g. Groves
1990). Tigers swim well and could certainly have crossed the rivers that dissected the
exposed Sunda shelf. However, the drier climate during the glacials probably created
open woodland savannah conditions on the shelf (for a discussion on this subject refer to
Adams and Faure, 1997). It is therefore possible that the tiger, with a need for dense
vegetation cover, and access to water (Sunquist and Sunquist 1989), found the exposed
Sunda shelf too much of a barrier. Brongersma (1935) proposed an alternative
explanation. He suggested that the tiger reached the archipelago at a time when Sumatra
and Java were still connected, but already separated from Borneo (in the late Pleistocene).


2. Tigers once occurred naturally on Borneo but became extinct
Because of ecological conditions during the glacials, few tigers could reach Borneo.
Furthermore, the carrying capacity of forest on Borneo’s weathered substrate
(MacKinnon et al. 1996) is generally less than on the rich volcanic soils of Java and
Sumatra. Animal densities are therefore lower in Borneo, potentially supporting lower
tiger densities (e.g. Rijksen and Meijaard 1999). It could thus be relatively easier to hunt
a species to extinction in Borneo than in other areas, especially if most of the indigenous
population hunted wildlife. Also, the great cultural importance of tigers in Borneo could
suggest that the species would once have been heavily pursued by human hunters.


3. Tigers still occur naturally on Borneo
A very small possibility, but one that cannot be entirely ruled out. As opposed to the
theory above, one could reason that a tiger population that occurs naturally at low
densities, as it did in Borneo, might be better able to cope with dispersed individuals than a naturally high-density population at artificially low densities. Also hunting pressure on very dispersed animals may be low because the effort required to find a tiger would outweigh the potential profit. Therefore, a
very low-density population in Borneo may have had a better chance to survive than elsewhere.


4. Tigers were once introduced to Borneo and established a wild-living population,
which eith
er survived or died out .


As far as I am aware there is no historic documentation of tigers being introduced to
Borneo, and I appeal to readers for any information on this.


Conclusion
Proving that a species is present is relatively straightforward, but finding proof that it has
become extinct or locally absent is very difficult. At least a few times per year Indonesian
newspapers still report on new observations of the now thought to be extinct Javan tiger
(P. t. sondaica) in one of the most densely populated areas of the world. Luckily for the
tiger there is no known historical presence on Borneo. I say ‘luckily’, because, ironically,
if we assume that there is a remote chance of tigers surviving on Borneo, it may be the
least threatened population of all, as few would be specifically pursuing them for their
prized parts.
The question of what to do with the above tiger reports remains. If the scientific world is
interested in finding out more, systematic interviews with indigenous hunters combined
with camera trapping may be the best way to test whether tigers still occur. Camera
trapping would be very useful because it would not only target tigers but also come up
with information on a whole range of other little known Bornean species. Clearly positive
results from camera trapping would still not tell whether tigers occur naturally or were
introduced. Because two reports of tigers refer to a brown, faintly striped animal, it would
be useful to ask informants how the Bornean tiger compares to the Sumatran tiger.
Finally, an alternative approach, of course, would be to leave the image of the Bornean
tiger intact in the mists of mythology.


Acknowledgements
Thanks to Ed Colijn, Rona Dennis, Will Duckworth, Simon Hedges, Andrew Kitchener, Peter Jackson, and
Serge Wich for their support, data, and revisions.


References
Adams J.M. and Faure H. (1997) (eds.), QEN members. Review and Atlas of Palaeovegetation:
Preliminary land ecosystem maps of the world since the Last Glacial Maximum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA. http://www.esd.ornl.gov/ ern/qen/adams1.html
Banks, E. 1931. A popular account of the mammals of Borneo. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Asiatic Society Vol IX, part II.
Brongersma, L.D. 1935. Notes on some recent and fossil cats, chiefly from the Malay Archipelago. Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 18: 1-89.
Gersi, D. 1975. Dans la jungle de Borneo. Editions G.P., Paris, France.
Gray, J.E. 1862. Catalogue of the bones of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum. London. 296 + iv.
Groves, C.P. 1990. Endemism in Bornean mammals. In: G. Ismail, M. Mohamed and S. Omar (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conference on Forest Biology and Conservation in Borneo, July 30 – August 3, 1990. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Center for Borneo Studies Publication No. 2: 152-174.
Hooijer, D.A. 1963. Further ‘Hell’ animals from Niah. Sarawak Museum Journal 11: 196-200.
Hose, C. and McDougall. 1912. The pagan tribes of Borneo. Macmillan, London.
Lyon, M.W. 1911. Mammals collected by Dr. W.L. Abbott on Borneo and some of the small adjacent islands. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol. 40: 53 – 160.
MacKinnon, K., Hatta, G., Halim, H. and Mangalik, A. 1996. The Ecology of Kalimantan. Periplus Edition (HK) Ltd., Singapore. 872 p.
Medway, Lord. 1964. Post-Pleistocene changes in the mammalian fauna of Borneo. Archeological evidence from the Niah Cave. Studies Speliol. 1:33-37.
Medway, Lord. 1977. Mammals of Borneo. Monograph of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society No. 7. 172 + xii.
Mjöberg, E. 1930. Forest life and adventures in the Malay archipelago. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1988 reprint).
Nieuwenhuis, A.W. 1904. Quer durch Borneo. Ergebnisse seiner Reisen in den Jahren 1894, 1896-97 und 1898-1900. Buchhandlung und Druckerei vormahls E.J. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands. 2 Vols. [in German].
Peranio, R. 1960. Animal teeth and oath-taking among the Bisaya. Sarawak Museum Journal 9: 6-14.
Pocock, R.I. 1929. Tigers. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 34: 509.
Puri, R.K. 1992. Mammals and hunting on the Lurah River: Recommendations for management of Faunal
Resources in the Cagar Alam Kayan Mentarang. WWF, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Rijksen, H. D. and Meijaard, E. 1999. Our Vanishing Relative. The status of wild orang-utans at the close of the twentieth century. Kluwer Academic Publishers,Dordrecht,The Netherlands.480p.
Sellato, B. 1983. Le mythe du tigre au centre de Bornéo. Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulindien 14(1-2):25-49.
Sellato, B. 1995. Zoolinguistics II. New species in Kalimantan? Conservation Indonesia Vol. 11 (1): 34-35.
Sunquist, M.E. and Sunquist, F.C. 1989.Ecological constrainst on predation by large felids. In: J.L.Gittleman (ed.). Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution. Chapman and Hall, London.
Witkamp, H. 1932. Het voorkomen van enige diersoorten in het landschap Koetai. Tropische Natuur 21(10): 169-175. [in Dutch].

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15 mars 2015 7 15 /03 /mars /2015 08:04

PRES DE 3 MILLIONS DE GRANDS CETACES ONT ETE DETRUITS AU COURS DU XX ème SIECLE.

Le rapport "Empting the oceans : A summary of industrial catches in the 20th century" présente pour la première fois une estimation globale des prises baleinières réelles au siècle dernier, donnant aussi, par la même, une idée de la population de grands cétacés nécessaire et suffisante à l'équilibre de l'Océan mondial. Entre 1900 et 1999, les chercheurs arrivent à environ 2,9 millions de grands cétacés, dont 874 000 rorquals communs et 761500 cachalots. Ryot News, hier. "Empting the Oceans" Report says 3 million whales were killed in 20th century.

http://www.ryot.org/3-million-whales-killed/924763

Voir aussi "Se souvenir des belles choses", sur ce blog le 7 Décembre 2014 pour le cas des requins pélerins au Canada à partir des années 50 (les français, pour leur part, commencèrent la chasse de cet animal au canon pneumatique en 1957 et ne l'interrompirent qu'en 1990). Concernant les grands prédateurs terrestres, les années 60 virent l'extinction du tigre des roselières en Chine occidentale, du lion des neiges en Afrique du Nord, du grizzly au Mexique. Dans les années 1970, ce fut le tour du léopard en Corée du Sud...

A TOUS LES ENNEMIS DE LA BETE IMMONDE, UN SIECLE A NE JAMAIS OUBLIER.

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10 mars 2015 2 10 /03 /mars /2015 07:47

La Chine va mettre sur pied un outil de coordination pour la protection des tigres sur l'ensemble de son territoire (tigres de l'Amour au Nord Est, tigres du Bengale et d'Indochine au Sud Ouest, réintroduction de tigres de Chine méridionale au Sud Est et au centre). English.Eastday.com, ce jour. "Office to guide protection of tigers."

http://english.eastday.com/auto/eastday/nation/u1ai8479099.html

China is establishing a national office dedicated to the protection of wild tigers.

Preparations are being made for the office, which will be an improvement on the currently fragmented tiger preservation efforts, said Hu Huijian, a researcher of the South China Institute of Endangered Animals.

Dozens of wild Siberian tigers live in northeast China and a similar number of wild Indochinese and Bengal tigers live in the southwest.

Researchers are uncertain whether South China tigers still live in the wild, but there are more than 100 in captivity, Hu said.

The management of the wild tiger species is not unified, with little coordination and exchanges, he said.

The national-level office for tiger protection is expected to facilitate planning for the protection.

Since Siberian, Indochinese and Bengal tigers live in border areas, the office should help with international coordination, he said.

China adopted the Action Plan for Restoration of Wild Tiger Population in 2011 to significantly increase the population and habitat of tigers.

The Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens has a commission for the protection of South China tigers.

Data is collected on each South China tiger, including their daily condition and records of their offspring, leading to improvements in the condition of the species and survival rate in recent years.

Sightings of Siberian tigers have increased in Changbaishan Mountain forest area in Jilin province, from six to nine in the late 1990s to 11 to 13 in recent years, according to the provincial forestry department.

Stuart Bray, chairman of Save China's Tigers foundation, said: "I have no doubt China will change the face of tiger conservation."

As a top predator, tigers need a complete ecosystem, which entails stimulating the recovery of the natural vegetation, prey and smaller predators.

Gains have been made in returning milu deer and crested ibis to the wild in China, and there is hope for similar achievements in tiger protection, although this will be more difficult, he said.

Le Président Xi Jin Ping a par ailleurs montré son intérêt personnel pour les tigres de l'Amour de la région du Chanbai Shan (officiellement 27 à l'état sauvage désormais contre moins d'une dizaine au début des années 2000) qui s'épanouissent aux côtés de 3500 grues blanches.

Voir l'article d'Alice Yan dans l'édition d'hier du South China Morning Post.

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1733520/what-does-siberian-tiger-eat-asks-chinas-curious-president-xi-jinping

La Chine a par ailleurs hébergé un autre tigre (Panthera tigris virgata), présent historiquement dans toute la zone de la Route de la Soie (jusqu'en Europe orientale). Il a, semble t-il, disparu de Chine du Nord Ouest (Asie centrale chinoise) au cours des années 1960. La reconstitution de cet animal connaîtra sa première étape au Kazakhstan oriental en 2019 et années suivantes, dans une zone assez proche de celle où vécurent ses congénères chinois les plus récents. La seconde étape, si l'Office de Protection du Tigre intègre aussi cet animal à son champ d'action, pourrait être chinoise...

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9 mars 2015 1 09 /03 /mars /2015 20:20

En Indonésie, sur l'île de Sumatra, les habitants des hameaux de la réserve de vie sauvage de Tambling (48 000 ha), préoccupés par l'impact des cerfs sur leurs cultures, apprécient la présence d'une grosse trentaine de tigres dont certains parcourent parfois les zones habitées. Channel NewsAsia, ce jour. Devianti Faridz. Tigers and villagers live peacefully in Sumatran hamlet.

http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/tigers-and-villagers-live/1704534.html

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9 mars 2015 1 09 /03 /mars /2015 10:11

Le lynx eurasien va probablement faire son retour en Grande Bretagne, d'où il avait été éradiqué aux environs de l'an 700. Le Lynx UK Trust planifie l'introduction de 18 individus en Angleterre et en Ecosse, dans le Norfolk, Cumbria et Aberdeenshire. The Economic Times, ce jour. Kounteya Sinha, TNN. Eurasian lynx is set to make a comeback in Britain after 1300 years.

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/46500371.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst

Des pistes sont aussi lancées pour le Pays de Galles. Carmarthen Journal, ce jour. Could wild lynx be reintroduced to Carmarthenshire?

http://www.carmarthenjournal.co.uk/wild-lynx-reintroduced-Carmarthenshire/story-26141911-detail/story.html

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  • : Le retour du tigre en Europe: le blog d'Alain Sennepin
  • : Les tigres et autres grands félins sauvages ont vécu en Europe pendant la période historique.Leur retour prochain est une nécessité politique et civilisationnelle.
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