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12 janvier 2013 6 12 /01 /janvier /2013 10:45


Source : Bangkok Post, hier.

Famed for its soothing menthol smell and muscle pain-relieving properties, Tiger Balm is sold in more than 100 countries – but now the leaping tiger, based in Singapore for nearly a century, is returning to the country where it was invented.

Tiger Balm was created by the Aw brothers in what was Burma in the late 19th century. The Chinese businessmen made their fortune by selling the ointment from a shop in Rangoon (Yangon), before moving the business to Singapore in 1926.

Singapore-listed Haw Par Corporation, which owns the brand, is keen to take it back to the Myanmar market, where it has not been sold officially for decades.

Tiger Balm "works where it hurts" according to this 2003 Bangkok billboard advertisement. Now the brand is returning to its roots in neighbouring Myanmar. Photo by Pattanapong Hirunard.

“The reason why we are very keen on Myanmar is, of course, it’s our origin. Tiger Balm has gone out into the world, made a name for itself and now it’s coming back,” AK Han, the company’s executive director in charge of healthcare told the Financial Times.

Haw Par Corporation has already sent staff to Myanmar to find a distributor, which they did by creating a shortlist of companies from the labels of products already distributed in the country.

“With all due respect to the consultants, we’ve been in this business for a long time and we are in so many countries, so we are able to fish out the guys on the ground who can do the job and walk the talk,” Mr Han told the FT.

Mr Han added that confirmation that there is spending power in Myanmar to support consumer spending on products such as Tiger Balm came when the distributor organised parties in Yangon and Mandalay in September 2012 to mark the reintroduction of the product.

He said about 300 wholesalers, pharmacists and chemists turned up at each event in luxury cars such as Mercedes and Lexuses. 

“That was when we knew we were right,” he said. 

“These are the people who wake up commerce. Either they have their own trading organisations or they have their own trading links with, say, Thailand. They have wealth and they flaunt it.”

Mr Han remarked that there is “quite a layer of richer people” in Myanmar, who are not necessarily connected to the military.


... ET LA BOURIATIE OUVRIRA UN COMPLEXE BIOPHARMACEUTIQUE BASE SUR LA MEDECINE TRADITIONNELLE TIBETAINE, D'ICI 2018. La bibliothèque scientifique d'Ulan Ude est une des plus riches du monde en ouvrages rares et anciens de médecine tibétaine. Source : Siberian Times du 27 Décembre 2012.


Temple Ivolgynsky Datsan,(Ulan - Ude),  coeur du bouddhisme russe.

information items 672

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12 janvier 2013 6 12 /01 /janvier /2013 10:22


3 tigres électrocutés ces 7 derniers mois par des câbles électriques au Madya Pradesh. La plupart sont installés illégalement.

Source : Times of India, ce jour.

JABALPUR: The Madhya Pradesh forest department has still not learnt its lesson, even after losing 3 tigers to electrocution/ poaching in the last 7 months. Electric wires hanging barely 5 feet above the ground situated half a kilometer away from Vijayraghavgarh territorial area where an adult tiger was electrocuted on the intervening night of December 25-26, point to a criminal negligence which could turn Katni into a tiger graveyard, unless urgent remedial measures are initiated.

Conservationist Ajay Dubey who sent this photograph to the forest minister on January 9, is skeptical about any such possibility. "The state government's election year commitment to give 24x7 power to all has sent the MPEB officials in overdrive. A reckless exercise is on to put up poles indiscriminately without seeking official clearance from the forest department and Katni furnishes a prime example, he said.

"The district touches the Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve and the very fact that two tigers died here within last two months establishes the frequency of their movement in the belt. At least 75% of electric poles installed there, Dubey claimed are unauthorized, illegal and ill-maintained but government is turning a blind eye to this anomaly for obvious reasons. A special package of Rs 1200 sent to the centre by the MP government in 2009 to insulate electrical line in the territorial /forest area has been gathering dust, so there seems to be no hope" Dubey feels.

The live wire trap set up by poachers in December was connected to a unauthorized pole, Dubey claimed. The dead tiger he said as per the local information was being spotted in company of a tigress and her litter fortunately the others survived. He had apprised the authority of the fact and has written to the minister to order a probe and fix the responsibility on the issue.

Significantly, the departmental inquiry instituted by the state forest department after a tigress died along with it's cub two months ago proves Dubey could be right. The tigress had jumped over and contacted a high tension wire hanging low and was instantly electrocuted along with the prey. The report categorically mentions that" lineman P C Burman had noticed the damaged transmission pole informed his superiors and asked for immediate replacement." His attempts proved futile as instead of replacing the broken pole which was reduced to the height of 8-10 feet as against mandatory 27ft they left it untouched leading to the gory accident.

Similarly the death by electrocution of a 3-year-old male tiger in last June in village Kathotia in Sehore points to the same trend.

Quizzed over the issue, chief wild life warden P K Shukla said that he has specifically issued directives ensure that no high or low tension wires are found hanging loose in the territoral area. We are aware of the danger they pose, he told TOI on Friday.



Source : The Hindu, hier.


Shrinking Sunderbans threat to Bengal Tiger

File photo of a Royal Bengal Tiger.
The Hindu File photo of a Royal Bengal Tiger.

Rapid deterioration in mangrove health is causing as much as 200 metres of the vegetation-rich coast to disappear annually in the Sunderbans, according to zoologists.

Nathalie Pettorelli, from the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) and senior study author, said: “Our results indicate a rapidly retreating coastline that cannot be accounted for by the regular dynamics of the Sunderbans. Degradation is happening fast, weakening this natural shield for India and Bangladesh.”

Sunderbans is the largest block of continuous mangrove forest in the world, native to nearly 500 species of reptile, fish, bird and mammals, including the world famous Royal Bengal Tiger, the journal Remote Sensing reports.

Thriving human development, rising global temperatures, degradation of natural protection from tidal waves and cyclones is inevitably leading to species loss in this richly biodiverse part of the world, according to a ZSL statement.

Sarah Christie, ZSL’s tiger conservation expert, says: “The Sunderbans is a critical tiger habitat; one of only a handful of remaining forests big enough to hold several hundred tigers. To lose the Sunderbans would be to move a step closer to the extinction of these majestic animals.”

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11 janvier 2013 5 11 /01 /janvier /2013 05:31


La nouvelle a été officiellement annoncée le 9 janvier par le porte parole du Président Poutine, Dmitri Peskov.

C'est Konstantin. A. Chuychenko, chef du Directoire Présidentiel de contrôle, qui en prendra la charge. Ces fonds incluront des dons de la Société russe de Géographie.

Source : site présidentiel, il y a deux jours


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10 janvier 2013 4 10 /01 /janvier /2013 05:54

Source : Phoenix Fund, ce jour.

During the first week of January 2013 residents of Svetlogorye village, Pozharsky district of Primorye, found tiger cub paw prints near the human settlement.  Although there were no conflict cases yet, local people started getting nervous and informed local law enforcement agencies about the young predator. Tiger specialists immediately arrived at the scene in order to find out what caused the animal to approach the dwellings. According to specialists of Primorsky Hunting Management Department, there were four tiger cubs wandering about. Three of them made their way to the north - Khabarovsky krai, and the one left in Primorye. No tracks of any adult tigresses were found nearby.

The cub was captured on January 9th. As the animal was extremely emaciated, it was decided to transport it to the Utyos Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Khabarovsky krai which is located not too far from Svetlogorye village. There were fears that the cub would not get through a long trip to the Amur Tiger Rehabilitation Centre located in the south of Primorye (almost an 8-hour drive). The young predator will be kept at Utyos for at least a couple of weeks until vets can decide the fate of the animal. If the tiger regain its health quickly, it will be transported to the Amur Tiger Rehabilitation Centre for further rehabilitation where Centre’s caretakers will prepare the animal for
release back to the wild.

It is known that cubs left without a mother in the wild are completely vulnerable and cannot survive on their own. Discovering tiger cubs roaming without their mother in the wild means that something must have happened to the adult tigress, otherwise, it would have never left its cubs alone. Experts will investigate the case and try to find out what have happened with the mother tigress.

Sergei Bereznuk, director of the Phoenix Fund:
"That's the second time this winter when orphaned tiger cubs are found in the wild. The first case occurred in late November 2012 when three cubs  were found without their mother, and now they are kept at the Amur Tiger Rehabilitation Centre near Alekseevka village (Nadezhdinsky district of Primorye). And now,one more tiger cub has been rescued. Probably, three other siblings will be captured soon too. This is certainly a very alarming sign for the Amur tiger population.  It might be supposed that tigresses had been killed by poachers. If the tiger cubs found this winter die, the population will lose  NINE individuals only within the first half of winter.  That is why our top priority now is to successfully rehabilitate them for return to the wild. It is extremely needed to provide finanacial support to the Amur Tiger Rehabilitation Centre, help keep tigers there and purchase necessary equipment".

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10 janvier 2013 4 10 /01 /janvier /2013 05:35


Le 7 janvier 2013, le Conseil de Surveillance de la mise en œuvre conjointe du protocole de Kyoto et de la Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques (CCNUCC) a approuvé un projet unique pour la conservation des forêts dans la vallée du fleuve Bikin, Primorsky Krai, mené par le WWF Russie en collaboration avec la communauté de la population indigène Udehe "Tiger" avec l'appui de l'Initiative internationale sur le climat allemand.


En 2009, le caractère traditionnel de la communauté «Tiger» a loué près de 500 mille hectares de forêt précieuse pendant 49 ans, empêchant ainsi leur coupe et de préservation de l'habitat des tigres, empêchant les émissions de plus de 200 tonnes de CO2 par an. Selon le secrétariat de la CCNUCC,  l'impact sur le climat est équivalente à éviter les émissions de 45.000 voitures. Obtenir des fonds pour ce qui a été évité des émissions de CO2, est en fait une «rente de conservation».

"L'importance de cet événement est beaucoup plus large que le projet spécifique - dit Alexey Kokorin, chef du« Climat et énergie »du WWF Russie, car il va servir d'ewemple et de catalyseur.

Lors de la réunion en Décembre 2012 sur le climat de l'ONU à Doha, des négociations ont eu lieu sur la mise en place d'un mécanisme à grande échelle pour la conservation des forêts dans les pays en développement (il a été appelé REDD +). Il est axé sur les avantages supplémentaires pour les populations autochtones, les animaux et les plantes, etc Toutefois, selon le WWF, le mécanisme devrait couvrir tous les pays - à la fois les pays développés et en développement. Cela est essentiel pour un nouvel accord mondial qui est déjà préparé. A ce titre, le projet WWF  dans la vallée du fleuve Bikin pourrait devenir un modèle pour le développement de ce mécanisme.

Le WWF Russie envisage d'étendre ses activités . En Extrême-Orient un projet concernant le pin de Corée, définit une vaste zone où la communauté indigène locale maintiendra une activité forestière traditionnelle -  herbes médicinales et autres produits,les émissions de CO2 évitées étant certifiées et vendues.

vsolkin 2.std

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9 janvier 2013 3 09 /01 /janvier /2013 09:46


Directeur général de l'Institut océanographique de Monaco.

Les requins ont mauvaise réputation : mangeurs d'hommes, créatures sanguinaires, ils sont pourtant un maillon primordial des écosystèmes marins. Pour dépasser ce malentendu, l'Institut océanographique de Monaco leur dédie l'année 2013 à travers une exposition à Monaco et une série de conférences à l'Institut océanographique de Paris. La première d'entre elles sera animée par Robert Calcagno, le directeur général de l'Institut, ce mercredi 9 janvier.

L'idée est née en 2010 lorsque nous avons réuni pour la première fois la Monaco Blue Initiative. Nous avions alors défini deux enjeux majeurs pour les océans : la protection des grands prédateurs marins et des grand fonds. Nous commençons donc notre programme sur les super prédateurs par le plus symbolique, le requin.

Le message de l'exposition sera très simple : les requins ne sont pas si menaçants que ça pour l'homme, mais ils sont eux-mêmes menacés, leur population ayant facilement diminué de moitié au cours des dernières décennies. Pourtant, ils sont utiles à l'équilibre des océans et leur disparition aurait des conséquences très graves, notamment par la prolifération de méduses et d'algues.

Nous allons nous impliquer dans la création d'une aire marine protégée dans l'archipel des Palaos, au large des Philippines. Là-bas, les responsables politiques ont compris qu'ils avaient plutôt intérêt à protéger les océans qu'à donner des autorisations de pêche sans compter, notamment car c'est un haut lieu de plongée pour les touristes. Nous allons travailler avec eux pour créer une aire marine protégée pilote. Quant à la pêche en Méditerranée, nous sommes favorables à des quotas pour les requins comme pour le thon rouge. ■


Voir aussi le programme 2013 du Grand Aquarium du Primorye avec sa faune d'extraordinaires mammifères, poissons et crustacés de la mer du Japon.



Au moins jusqu'au 18ème siècle, un animal de 3 mètres comme le requin longimane était pratiquement aussi dominant en haute mer que l'homme sur les continents. Et sa présence n'encourage pas seulement celle de poissons pilotes et de rémoras, mais aussi celle de tortues marines volumineuses, et de dorades coryphènes, impressionnants animaux irisés de 1,50m et pesant plusieurs dizaines de kilogrammes, à peine moins rapides que les voiliers, espadons et marlins, prédateurs de poissons volants qu'ils cueillent à leur envol (ils sont, avec le tigre Richard Parker, parmi les personnages principaux du livre "L'Histoire de Pi" de Yann Martel...). Le déclin rapide du requin longimane, grand consommateur de naufragés en pleine mer, a bouleversé les équilibres biologiques sur une partie majoritaire des espaces océaniques.

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7 janvier 2013 1 07 /01 /janvier /2013 05:14


A partir du 15 Janvier, des milliers de loups vont être abattus en république de Sakha. Leurs prélèvements sur les troupeaux (chevaux, rennes) a atteint l'an dernier des niveaux inédits. Source : Siberian Times, ce jour.

L'opération durera jusqu'au 15 Avril, voire nettement au delà "si nécessaire". La baisse des populations de lièvres arctiques est peut être en corrélation avec le déplacement de nombreuses meutes vers la partie centrale de la région...

Partout où le tigre est bien implanté, les loups sont beaucoup moins nombreux. Et beaucoup plus discrets. Or, l'impact du premier sur les populations d'ongulés est bien moindre que celui des seconds. Voir le détail, particulièrement éloquent et spectaculaire, dans :

Miquelle, D.G., Stephens, P.A., Smirnov, E.N., Goodrich, J.M., Zaumyslova, O.Yu. & Myslenkov, A.I. 2005. Tigers and Wolves in the Russian Far East: Competitive Exclusion, Functional Redundancy and Conservation Implications. In Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Ray, J.C., Berger, J., Redford, K.H. & Steneck, R. (eds.) New York: Island Press. pp. 179–207.

'State of emergency' over wolf attacks in Siberian region

By The Siberian Times reporter
07 January 2013

Teams of hunters are being formed in the Sakha Republic to cull thousands of wolves responsible for attacks on deer herds and horses.

Currently there are estimated to be around 4,000 wolves in a north-east Siberian region which is only slightly smaller than India. Picture: The Siberian TImes


A state of emergency was declared after some 16,111 deer and 314 horses were lost in 2012 threatening the livelihood of local breeders in Russia's largest region, reported news agencies.

The three month wolf hunt was announced Yegor Borisov, head of the republic, which is also known as Yakutia. It will start on January 15.

'People are worried like never before about massive wolves attacks on domesticated animals in all areas of the republic, including central ones,' he said. 

Currently there are estimated to be around 4,000 wolves in a north-east Siberian region which is only slightly smaller than India. 

In a cull last year,  hunters killed 730 grey wolves but the aim this year is to increase the number. 

Officials see the optimal number of wolf predators as around 500, warning that the damage they cause by attacking livestock costs 147 million roubles, around $5 million. Deer breeders lose around 10,000 roubles, or $330, per animal. 

The authorities have promised wolf hunters helicopters and munitions also with fuel and other equipment in the campaign to reduce the wolf population. 

A cash bounty will be paid for each wolf slaughtered in the cull, along with prizes for the three most successful hunters.


ACTUALISATION DU 15 JANVIER 2013. L'objectif d'abattage minimal est fixé à  3000 loups. Des poisons habituellement interdits vont être utilisés. Les trois chasseurs les plus efficaces recevront 1 million de roubles, équivalent à 33 000 dollars ou 25 000 euros...


An annual operation in the Sakha Republic - also known as Yakutia - has been massively expanded this year and will use helicopters to spot and shoot the burgeoning wolf populations which threatens deer herds and horses. Last year  hunters killed 730 grey wolves but with a state of emergency now in force, the aim in 2013 is to wipe out all but 500 wolves in a territory almost as large as India. 

'Local authorities first announced a three months long hunting season, but quickly prolonged it to 'indefinite', saying that the season will be over only when the number of wolves would come down to 500,' reported Rossiyskaya Gazeta.

The wolves are causing serious losses to deer herdsmen with 16,111 deer lost last year from herds numbering 200,000. Some 314 horses were also lost to wolves. Deer breeders lose around 10,000 roubles, or $330, per animal. 

Yegor Borisov, head of the region, warned people 'are worried like never before' over the wolf threat, stressing: 'We must have a clear plan of how to fight the wolves'.

Reports suggest that the republic's government may appeal to the federal authorities to permit the use of unspecified banned 'special means to kill the animals, including poisons.'

Hunters are being paid rewards to kill the wolves, with bounties of  $660 per adult wolf pelt and $50 for the skin of a cub. Some districts like Verkhoyansk are raising the incentives an extra $300 per pelt. 

The three top hunters will receive a one million rouble - or $33,000 - bonus. Others are promising a snowmobile to the hunter who kills most wolves. 

So far there has been no outcry from animal protectionists. 'There are too many wolves in Russia,' said Vladimir Krever of the World Wildlife Fund.

The hunting teams began getting in place across the region earlier this week in time for the official start of the hunting season on 15 January. 

The season normally lasts three months but this year has been made 'indefinite' until at least 3,000 wolves are slaughtered.

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2 janvier 2013 3 02 /01 /janvier /2013 10:12



(Times of India, 29 Décembre 2012).

BHOPAL: Having lost three tigers in last 30 days, forest minister Sartaj Singh has reiterated the idea of allowing hunting of wild boars and blue bulls in the state- that was earlier put on the back burner following protest from wildlife activists including former Union animal welfare minister and BJP MP Maneka Gandhi.

"Tigers are getting killed by electric traps laid by farmers to save their crops from these herbivorous wild animals. It has been found out that in most cases none of the accused intended to kill the big cat. Implementation of the rules will solve the problem to a large extent," the minister told TOI.



JAIPUR: Even as the Wildlife Conservation Society recently reported a 50 percent increase in the population of tigers in the wild in India with their population now estimated at 3,200 after years of dangerously dwindling numbers, there is fresh cause for worry for tigers in sanctuaries.

As tiger-numbers increase in reserve areas, territorial fights are becoming frequent. In Rajasthan's Ranthambore National Park, the large number of tigers dying because of such fights has led to the state government planning for a corridor connecting this sanctuary with the adjoining Keladevi Sanctuary, an official said Friday.


Tiger population in India has significantly increased in the wild, thanks to protection of additional habitat of the big cat and stringent anti-poaching patrols, the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) said.

In south-western India, where WCS research and conservation efforts began 25 years ago, a major rebound of tigers in the Western Ghats region of Karnataka has taken place.

In Nagarahole and Bandipur National Parks, tigers have actually reached saturation levels, with surplus young tigers spilling out into forest-reserves and dispersing using secured forest corridors through a landscape that holds over a million human beings.

In newer tiger reserves including Bhadra and Kudremukh, numbers have increased by as much as 50 per cent after years of neglect and chronic poaching were tackled, WCS said.

The successes are much-needed good news as tiger numbers worldwide continue to hover at all-time lows due to the combined threat of poaching, loss of prey, and habitat destruction. WCS estimates that only 3,200 tigers exist in the wild.

“Tigers are clearly fighting for their very existence, but it’s important to know that there is hope. Victories like these give us the resolve to continue to battle for these magnificent big cats,” WCS President and CEO Cristian Samper said.

“While the news about tigers has been bleak, these recent developments clearly show how smart strategies and strong partnerships are ensuring tigers are saved for centuries to come,” said Samper.

The combination of strict government-led anti-poaching patrols, voluntary relocation of villages away from tiger habitats, and the vigilant local presence of WCS conservation partners watching over tigers has led to the rebound of big-cat populations and their prey.

Similarly in Thailand, WCS conservationists report a tiger comeback in Huai Kha Khaeng (HKK) Wildlife Sanctuary — a 2,700 square kilometre protected area in the vast Western Forest Complex.

Meanwhile in Russia, government officials are drafting a new law that will make transport, sales, and possession of endangered animals a criminal offence rather than just a civil crime.

“I am confident that our conservation model of combining solid science with passionate local advocacy and effective government collaboration demonstrates practically how tigers can be brought back in emergent Asia,” WCS scientist Ullas Karanth who has led these tiger recovery efforts, said.

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1 janvier 2013 2 01 /01 /janvier /2013 11:49


Près de 4 fois plus petite et presque 3 fois plus peuplée que Sumatra, Java est une préfiguration de l'Inde, où il ne restera probablement plus, d'ici 2020, que quelques dizaines de tigres sauvages dans les ravines du centre du pays.


Source : Jakarta Post, 2 Juin 2012.

The Javanese tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) may have been declared to extinct by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in 1994, but recently clues discovered by a researcher are believed to be evidence of the tiger’s existence, especially in the forests of Central Java’s Muria mountain range.

Covering an area of nearly 70,000 hectares, the mountain range encompasses the three neighboring regencies of Jepara, Kudus and Pati.

tiger 4.img assist custom-501x227

“I believe the animals are still alive in the mountain range,” Javanese tiger researcher Didik Raharyono, 42, told The Jakarta Post, recently.

A biologist at Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, Didik said that his belief was based on his 14 years of research and efforts to look for evidence of the Javanese tiger in the area.

The latest evidence, he said, was a 5x6 centimeter piece of skin he believed to have come from a Javanese tiger.

He said he had obtained the piece from Muali, a staffer at the Pati Natural Resources Conservation Agency (BKSDA).

Muali, who is also the head of the Clereng Natural Preserve Resort, said he got the skin from a trader of antique goods at a traditional market in Kudus. The trader bought the skin from a hunter who was said to have killed the animal in the Muria mountain range’s Rahtawu subdistrict in 2008.

Yet, he said, further examination was needed to make sure the skin was really that of a Javanese tiger and not of a Sumatran tiger, which had had similar stripes.

“That is why I handed over the skin to Didik for further testing,” said Muali, adding that locals had often reported that they sighted Javanese tigers in the mountain range area.

Didik, who was 90 percent sure that the sample had come from a Javanese tiger, said that in 2000, a Javanese tiger was found dead in Colo, Kudus, after eating a goat carcass that had been poisoned by an employee of the local tourism agency.

Didik also said he found traces of the carnivore in the mountain range in 1998.

Didik said that based on testimony by locals, there might be a change in the physical appearance of the Javanese tiger found in Muria mountain range.

Scientific notes describe Javanese tigers as bigger than Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae), but locals who claimed to have spotted the animal in the Muria area said that it was small but had big feet.

“This could be the result of long-distance walks, because of the hilly habitat,” Didik said.

He said the Javanese tigers had originally lived in lowland habitats, but that the conversion of these areas had pushed the tigers into mountainous areas.

Based on his research, Didik said that the Muria mountain range was not the only site where traces of Javanese tigers were found. He said he previously found evidence that the animals also live in the Meru Betiri and Gunung Raung National Parks in East Java.

Different evidence was also reported by activists at the Muria Research Center, an environmental NGO.

“We found the feces of a Javanese tiger while hiking in the Muria range from July to August 2011, when we were heading to the Termulus Peak to be precise,” activist Imam Khanafi said.

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26 décembre 2012 3 26 /12 /décembre /2012 08:15


After India’s  citizens, it is the turn of the country’s tigers to get unique identification (UID) numbers.

The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) will issue UIDs to around 650 tigers — about one-third of the population — in the first phase starting early January.

The UIDs will be based on photographs captured on camera traps — cameras with infrared sensors that take pictures when they sense movement — as each tiger has a pattern that is unique to it, much like fingerprints for humans. The NTCA has prescribed two photographs showing both sides of the animal’s body. http://www.hindustantimes.com/Images/Popup/2012/12/23-12-12-pg-01b.jpg

“A national repository of camera trap photographs of tigers with UIDs will provide instant sharing of information with states and other participants,” the NTCA said in a concept note.

The UID will provide details such as location and other demographics.

An NTCA official said each ID will be linked to five major tiger landscapes in India.

The authority has also developed a software, ExtractCompare, to perform batch-level automated matching and to assign UIDs, the note said.

The current monitoring practice is for forest departments to assign numbers to each tiger. But, a tiger in Kanha reserve may be named T-2 and another in neighbouring Bandhavgarh may have the same number. "It makes monitoring difficult," an NTCA official said.

This year has seen 83 tiger deaths, the most since 1997 despite higher spending on protection. There are currently 1,706 tigers across 41 reserves.

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  • : Le retour du tigre en Europe: le blog d'Alain Sennepin
  • : Les tigres et autres grands félins sauvages ont vécu en Europe pendant la période historique.Leur retour prochain est une nécessité politique et civilisationnelle.
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