LES SUCCES DU NEPAL DANS LA LUTTE CONTRE LE BRACONNAGE, AVEC UNE AUGMENTATION IMPORTANTE DES TIGRES DANS LE PARC NATIONAL DE CHITWAN, INFLUENT FAVORABLEMENT SUR LA ZONE CONTIGUE DE L'HIMALAYA INDIEN.
Ceci rappelle la dissémination des tigres russes en Chine du Nord Est et en Corée du Nord. Le parc National Valmiki, frontalier de Chitwan, qui comptait 10 tigres en 2006, en abrite désormais 28. Source : Scoop World, ce jour. "Tiger numbers almost triple in India's Valmiki National Park".
Berlin – Tiger numbers in India’s little known Valmiki National Park have almost tripled. Twenty eight of the big cats now roam across the 900 square kilometre reserve the foothills of the Himalayas – up from just 10 in 2006. "We are delighted that our work in Valmiki is making a measurable contribution to the international goal of doubling the number of tigers in wild by 2022,” says the Chair of German conservation group NABU International, Thomas Tennhardt.
Habitat loss and relentless hunting to supply medicine markets in China and other parts of Asia continue to decimate global tiger populations. Numbers have plummeted from around 100,000 at the turn of the century to a historic low of 3,200 in 2010 – a loss of 97 percent. Tigers have been displaced from 93 percent of their historic range. Numbers held in captivity in China and the USA are more than double that in the wild.
In India are beginning to claw their way back from the brink after the government stepped up protection efforts in recent years. Since 2010, Indian tiger reserves are required to conduct a regular census, the results of which are published in a national report every four years. According to the most recent figures, India now hosts 2226 tigers - about 70 percent of the world’s population and up from 1441 in 2006.
"The survival of wild tigers will depend on our ability to protect them and their habitat effectively against, encroachment, genetic isolation and poaching," said Tennhardt. “That’s exactly what NABU International is striving for in Valmiki.
Together with neighbouring Chitwan National Park and Parsa Wildlife Reserve in Nepal, Valmiki is part of a contiguous 3,549 square kilometre large tiger conservation unit. But while the reserves across Valmiki’s border with Nepal boast some 255 tigers, Valmiki’s tigers have has struggled to hold on to double figures. Yet the park has great potential to bolster tiger populations in the long-term.
Before Valmiki was declared a Tiger Reserve in 1990 its native flora and fauna had been severely damaged. For decades, commercial hard wood plantations and the invasion of unpalatable exotic plants have progressively pushed back Valmiki’s natural grasslands to just five percent of the park’s area.
“Valmiki’s tiger population is being kept down by a chronic shortage of prey, which in turn due to a lack of suitable grazing," said Dr Barbara Maas, Head of International Conservation at NABU International. "Thousands of local people heavily depend on Valmiki’s forest for firewood. Further pressure on the reserve’s limited grasslands is caused by illegal grazing of livestock.”
“In collaboration with the Wildlife Trust of India, the Forestry Department and local villagers our project aims to reverse this damage to allow Valmiki to reach its full potential as a tiger stronghold.”
Cooking stoves that utilize agricultural waste and solar lamps have already reduced wood consumption by 77 percent in some areas. The park’s potential is exciting. We’re looking forward to regenerating more of the parks’ grasslands this year. If we are successful, the tigers will come back. The launch of a new antipoaching initiative this year will ensure they’ll be safe.”
Actualisation : 14 février. Khabar South Asia, Kathmandu. Surat Giri : "Tiger Nations" strike antipoaching deal in Nepal Symposium. Précisions quant aux perspectives à partir de l'exemple indo -népalais dans l'arc Teraï.
Nepal has made significant strides in curbing the poaching of wild animals in the past few years, especially tigers, elephants, and one-horned rhinoceros. Nepal celebrated 2011 and 2014 as zero-poaching years and hasn't had any tigers killed for the past three years.
To highlight its recent success, Nepal organised a five-day anti-poaching symposium with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), which wrapped up February 6th in Kathmandu. Experts from the 13 tiger countries – Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Cambodia, India , Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam – attended the summit.
Conservation activist Kumar Paudel credited increased awareness among local people and enforcement agencies for the reduction in poaching and trading.
"Back in 2010, when I started working in the conservation sector, neither the local people nor the enforcement agencies had enough knowledge about the endangered species and the importance of their conservation," he told Khabar South Asia. "Many local people did not know that some species of animals such as rhinoceros and pangolins are endangered and it is a legal offense to kill them."
Nepal's two-pronged strategy of heavy mobilising of security forces and providing incentives for local villagers to conserve wildlife yielded remarkable results in reducing poaching activities.
"Villagers living in the buffer zone of national parks and conservation areas are being provided 30 to 50% of the revenue collected from tourists in return for informing on poachers and helping in conservation activities," Laba Guragain, a forest ranger at the Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, told Khabar.
WWF Tigers Alive Initiative head Mike Baltzer praised the efforts of Nepal and India in recovering the numbers of tigers and preventing poaching.
" Nepal and India are our tiger heavyweights leading the region. India excels at recovering tiger numbers and Nepal at zero poaching," he said.
According to various reports, the number of tigers has increased by 30% in India since 2010 and by almost two thirds in Nepal between 2009 and 2013.
Throughout the symposium, conservation experts from Nepal and other participating countries shared best practices in improving anti-poaching efforts and discussed how to implement them.
"We realised that collaboration between local communities, government and non-government agencies is essential for effective wildlife conservation. And if we want to eliminate poaching forever, a wider collaboration between countries is absolutely necessary," Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Director General Tikaram Adhikari told Khabar.
"Collaboration between Nepal and India in the Terai Arc Landscape Project was very instrumental in reducing the poaching of tigers in both countries."
The symposium came up with six recommendations to eliminate poaching. They ranged from using the latest technology to counter poaching, such as GPS and drones, to improving cross-border collaboration to involving local communities in the effort.