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26 décembre 2018 3 26 /12 /décembre /2018 09:15

Cet article fera l'objet d'une actualisation significative, demain. Le Japon a confirmé, ce jour, qu'il quitterait la Commission Baleinière Internationale en Juin prochain, et qu'il reprendrait la chasse commerciale aux grands cétacés à partir de juillet. 

Depuis la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale, le Japon a collaboré avec la communauté internationale en tous domaines. Donc, il est rarissime que Tokyo quitte une institution internationale parce que ses demandes n'ont pas été satisfaites...

Cette chasse commerciale est planifiée à l'intérieur des eaux territoriales, ainsi que dans sa Zone Economique Exclusive. 

Il n'y aura pas, officiellement, de chasse commerciale dans l'Hemisphère Sud, zone Antarctique incluse. Dans les secteurs où il est prévu qu'elle soit pratiquée, les chasseurs se conformeront aux lois internationales, et à un quota calculé selon une méthode adoptée par la CBI, de façon à ne pas mettre les populations chassées en péril (là encore, officiellement). The Asahi Shimbun, ce jour. Natsuki Okamura & Tetsushi Yamamura.

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201812260023.html

Précision au 27 décembre :  Commercial whaling, which is set to resume in July 2019, will comprise two pillars: one will be offshore whaling with a base in Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture; the other will be coastal whaling with bases in Abashiri and Kushiro in Hokkaido, Hachinohe in Aomori Prefecture, Ishinomaki in Miyagi Prefecture, Minami-Boso in Chiba Prefecture, and Taiji in Wakayama Prefecture.

De nombreuses voies s'expriment dans le pays contre cette décision et dans le refus de consommer un animal ressenti comme si proche que ceci s'apparenterait à du cannibalisme... Mais l'influence de ce mouvement très important dans la "société civile", ce qui signifie en fait, chez les jeunes dans leur écrasante majorité, risque d'être amoindrie et timidifiée par les gesticulations inquisitoriales ostentatoires de l'Australie et de la Nouvelle Zélande. Celles - ci freinent de facto l'évolution des représentations au Japon, en permettant au pouvoir (et aux aînés) de reprocher aux cadets d'adopter une position antinationale. En réalité, la question est désormais générationnelle, et le temps résoudra les conflits internes à la société nippone plus ou moins facilement en fonction de l'attitude de la "communauté internationale"... Voir les considérations géostratégiques qui pourraient désormais rendre les oppositions  moins virulentes après le repositionnement japonais (Analyse de Yoichiro Sato dans le Japan Times) :

The annual diplomatic protests over Japan’s Antarctic whaling were thus in large part political rituals to reaffirm, but not reignite, the dormant territorial claims, which the Antarctica Treaty effectively froze.

In 2010, Australia brought the Antarctic research whaling to the International Court of Justice. Japan, confident of victory, agreed to the legal adjudication but lost in 2014 on technical grounds. The world court did not rule against research whaling per se; Japan’s actual research activities were determined not to be scientific.

In the following year, Japan revised the plan and expanded the research areas into the high seas of the Northern Pacific. Based on the results of its research, Japan argued that the stock of some whale species have sufficiently recovered and in 2018 proposed resumption of commercial whaling. The IWC rejected the Japanese proposal.

Japan will not be able to continue its Antarctic research whaling when it withdraws from the IWC but will likely resume commercial whaling in the Northwestern Pacific. This will significantly reduce the attention of the most active opponents, including Australia and New Zealand.

https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2018/12/25/commentary/japan-commentary/exiting-iwc-whale-decision/#.XCSXUFVKjIU

Voir aussi  l'ouvrage suivant, éclairant et passionnant, qui met en évidence un rapport à la mort très différent de celui du monde occidental, et homologue à celui de nombreuses sociétés « traditionnelles » : Mayumi Itoh. 2018. The japanese culture of mourning whales. Whale graves and memorial monuments in Japan. Palgrave Macmillan eds. (Singapore).

This book provides an in-depth study of Japanese whaling culture, emphasizing how the Japanese have considered whales and whaling in relation to their understanding of nature and religion. It examines why and how the Japanese have mourned the deaths of whales, treating them as if they were human beings, and assesses the relevance of this culture to nature conservation and management of sustainable use of natural resources. It also sheds new light on Japanese whaling, one of the most controversial issues in the contemporary world, by highlighting the hitherto unknown aspects of Japanese beliefs about whales and whaling, which constitute an integral part of their core concept of how they should coexist with nature. Through cross-examining previous studies of Japanese whaling, as well as analyzing new documents and conducting field research on location, this book presents a comprehensive survey of Japanese whaling culture and memorial rites for whales and offers viable insights on how the Japanese whaling culture can be applied to solving current global issues, including nature conservation, management of sustainable use of natural resources, and protection of wildlife and its habitats.

Plus de 150 monuments funéraires pour les cétacés répertoriés depuis 1671, nombreuses cérémonies liées

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bbm%3A978-981-10-6671-9%2F1.pdf

Actualisation au 27 décembre. Déception officielle de principe en Australie et Nouvelle Zélande (les deux pays, ainsi que la France), sont en réalité satisfaits de la décision japonaise car la flotte nippone ne viendra plus marcher sur les plates bandes antarctiques de ces trois pays...  Australia and New Zealand welcomed the decision to abandon the Antarctic whale hunt, but expressed disappointment that Japan would engage in any killing of the ocean mammals.

Yoshie Nakatani, an official at the foreign ministry's fisheries division, said Japan would still attend IWC meetings.

"It's not like we are turning our back on the IWC and abandoning international cooperation," she said. "There is no change to our country's respect for the rule of law and multilateralism." Asahi Shimbun.

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201812270008.html

Asahi Shimbun Editorial. Celui-ci met en évidence le dysfonctionnement croissant d'institutions internationales au fur et à mesure de l'évolution des représentations collectives.

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201812270015.html

The IWC’s supposed mission is to ensure an orderly development of the whaling industry while conserving and managing the world's whale population.

Anti-whaling nations’ recalcitrant opposition to any form of whaling irrespective of the populations of different species is, to be sure, a deviation from the spirit of the international treaty on whaling.  In the global fishing industry, the international management of fishing resources is assuming growing importance. If Japan is seen as a country that offers little international cooperation, it could put it at a disadvantage in future international negotiations on fishing issues.

In line with the decision, Japan will stop hunting whales in the Southern Hemisphere, including the Antarctic Ocean, under what it claims to be a research program in the middle of the term. 

In the process of making the decision to pull out of the IWC, the government has been avoiding open and public debate on the issue.

Since Japan’s proposal to lift, in a limited manner, the IWC’s moratorium on commercial whaling, which was rejected in a vote at an IWC meeting in September, the government has only been repeating that it would “consider all options.”

The departure from the IWC was approved by the Cabinet without any further action from the government and announced on the following day.

There has been no in-depth debate on the issue at the Diet. Nor has the decision been made through any formal policymaking process, such as discussions at an advisory council.

Even now, the government seems to have no clear plan for commercial whaling. As for the number of whales to be captured, the government just says it will be calculated according to the formula adopted by the IWC.

The government owes the public a clear and convincing explanation about why it rushed into the decision to leave the IWC despite a wide range of issues and questions that have yet to be addressed.

Autre article publié dans la Asahi Shimbun du 27 décembre : celui - ci met en évidence l'embarras aussi bien technique que politico-diplomatique des compagnies de l'industrie halieutique nippone. 

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201812270037.html

While commercial whaling will resume in waters off Japan this summer, companies in the fisheries industry are unenthusiastic about the prospects given international criticism and tepid consumer interest.

"We have no plans to resume the whaling business," said a public relations official of Maruha Nichiro Corp., previously Taiyo Gyogyo K.K., which had engaged in commercial whaling in the Antarctic Ocean.

With sluggish demand for whale meat, it will be difficult to continue such practices, the official added.

Major retailers are increasingly cautious about handling whale meat, amid fears of a growing movement for environmental protection and a backlash from the international community.

Although supermarket chain operator Aeon Co. sells whale meat at some of its outlets, it has no plans to ramp up promotion of the product.

"We don't expect there to be demand at all our outlets. We therefore have no plans to expand sales of whale meat or hold special sales," an official said.

Les pêcheurs traditionnels, sont, eux, plus enthousiastes.  "We highly value the decision, as it was made to protect the lives of people involved in the fisheries industry. We will conduct ‘local whaling’ and ‘coastal whaling’ rather than ‘commercial whaling.’"

Des restaurateurs sont beaucoup plus dubitatifs. Hajime Ishikawa, who owns a restaurant in Tokyo that specializes in whale meat dishes, said that although he also supports the policy change, the government should have made the decision after making sufficient preparations to answer the question, “Why will Japan continue to hunt whales?”

Ishikawa, 39, opened Himitsukujira about four years ago after eating Baird’s beaked whale hunted off Chiba Prefecture and finding it delicious. He serves meat from whales hunted in waters around Japan.

According to Fisheries Agency statistics, there are about 3,000 tons of frozen whale meat currently stored in Japan, roughly the same as the country's annual consumption.

“Many Japanese people do not feel it is necessary or desirable to hunt whales and eat their meat," Ishikawa said. "If people put a high value on whale meat as food, the government’s judgment to withdraw from the IWC would be more understandable.” 3000t de viande de cétacé sont consommées aujourd'hui au Japon, contre 233 000t en 1962...

 

 

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