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26 février 2010 5 26 /02 /février /2010 11:47
Le 9 Janvier dernier, des chercheurs russes et iraniens ont  annoncé des plans ambitieux pour le retour à l'état sauvage de guépards en Russie méridionale, et de tigres de la Caspienne à partir de la souche sibérienne actuelle,qui est leur descendante, dans le Nord de l'Iran (forêts du sud de la Caspienne).

Iranian and Russian ecologists have announced ambitious plans to return Caspian Tigers as well as Asiatic cheetahs, which disappeared some half a century ago in their countries, to the wild.

Since recent change in iranian environment administration officials, the idea of "rebuilding" the Caspian tiger in his original area has occured.



A delegation of Russian ecologists headed by Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation Sergey Donskoy arrived in Tehran a week ago to discuss avenues to reestablish the wild cats.
During the meeting, the Iranian ecologists shed light on the prospect of repopulating the jungles in northern Iran with extraordinary Caspian Tiger, which became extinct over 40 years ago.
This is while through modern genetic analysis it has been discovered the Caspian Tiger and the Siberian Tiger, still in existence, are separated by only one letter of genetic code. The Caspian Tiger can be reestablished by using their relative, the Siberian Tiger.

Wild siberian tigers are still , perhaps, 200 or 250. Their genetic pool is poor (corresponding to 27 - 35 individuals). But they breed easily in captivity, where their genetic pool is clearly richer (see  :
In situ population structure and ex situ representation of the endangered Amur Tiger
P. HENRY, D. MIQUELLE, T. SUGIMOTO, D. R. McCULLOUGH, A. CACCONE and M. A. RUSSELLO,
respectively from Department of Biology and Centre for Species at Risk and Habitat Studies, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC, Canada V1V 1V7,
Russian Far East Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, New York, NY 10460, USA, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, N10W5 Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management and Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA,
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, 21 Sachem Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Published Online: 23 Jun 2009; Molecular Ecology, Volume 18 Issue 15, Pages 3173 - 3184 ).

 

DIFFICULTIES FOR PERSIAN CHEETAHS
Russia Seeks to Reestablish Asiatic Cheetah in its Southern Caspian Regions.
They requested delivery of Asiatic Cheetahs to Russia for their revival program. In Russia, Cheetahs were at one time numerous in southern regions but went extinct over 50 years ago.
There are only 50 to 60 remaining Asiatic Cheetas in central parts of Ira and there is no captive breeding population of the Asiatic Cheetah in any zoo.
While discussing the prospects of reintroducing the cheetah in India the cheetah experts from the world over (like Nirmal Gosh, webmaster of Indian jungles.com)  had already warned that no individuals from the critically low Asiatic cheetah population in Iran should be withdrawn at this stage for any reintroduction experiment elsewhere, like the one proposed by Russia in exchange for the more abundant Russian Tiger, as the limited gene pool of Asiatic cheetah in Iran will suffer a tremendous blow.
Infact, a solution could be found through african cheetahs. The African and Asiatic cheetahs were separated some 5,000 years ago and that is not enough for a subspecies level differentiation.
In comparison, the asiatic lion subspecies were separated some 100,000 years ago, so was the African and Asian leopard subspecies 169,000 years ago.
If this plan, cautioned by both russian and iranian authorities is truly realized, it will be, infact, the first concrete and central part of the eurasian Green Dragoon to build.



Le Projet de réintroduction de léopards dans le Caucase s'étoffe
Persian leopards in Caucasus
March 2nd 2010

MOSCOW — Iran has promised to donate two wild leopards to Russia, officials said Sunday, bringing closer the aim of settling the rare animals near the 2014 Winter Olympics host city of Sochi. Russians and iranians were in negociation since 2007.
The reintroduction of the Persian leopard -- extinct in Russia's Caucasus region since the start of the last century -- is being championed by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin ahead of the games.
"There is an agreement with the government of Iran... Initially two female (leopards) will be given. They will be delivered in the spring," the head of the Sochi National Park, Nikolai Penkovsky, told the Interfax news agency
The inititaive to reintroduce the leopard is part of a drive to promote the mountainous region around Sochi, marking the western edge of the Caucasus mountains, as an area of natural beauty and diversity.

The agreement with Iran follows a visit to Tehran by Russian Natural Resources Minister Yury Trutnev for talks with the head of the Iranian environmental protection agency, Mohammad Javad Mohammadizadeh.
Iran's ISNA news agency also said the meeting had secured a pledge from Iran to give two leopards to Russia.
Turkmenistan has already given Russia two male leopards which are being held in a reserve outside Sochi.
Penkovsky said that for the reintroduction programme to have an effect, three females and three males would be required.
Many environmentalists have bitterly criticised plans for the 2014 Games, for which much infrastructure for the ski events has to be built from scratch.
The Russian branch of WWF this month accused the government of inflicting "huge damage" on the environment and said its future cooperation with the project was now in question.
Iran is one of the last holdouts of the leopards, commonly known as the Persian leopard, although there are smaller populations in Armenia, Georgia and Turkmenistan.



Un projet de réintroduction de léopards de l'Amour à partir d'individus captifs est en cours de conception
Un ouvrage collectif publié à la fin de l'an dernier, intitulé :
Iberian lynx Ex situ Conservation: An interdisciplinary approach (in english and spanish)
Astrid Vargas, Christine Breitenmoser &Urs Breitenmoser
Fundacion Biodiversidad
est consacré en grande partie au protocoles de réensauvagement de lynx ibérique  à partir de centres de reproduction.
Pages 462 - 477, un article signé Sarah Christie, est intitulé
"Breeding far eastern leopards for reintroduction : the zoo programme perspective"
Voilà une partie du propos introductif  (page 466):
" A reintroduction plan for this leopard is currently being prepared by a group of Russian and international scientists and conservationists for submission to the Russian government, and discussion on the subject with government authorities in Moscow has begun, facilitated by WWF Russia. I stress at this point that nothing will happen on the ground until the necessary political support and substantial funding have been obtained. This chapter is not intended to outline the entire plan, as it is not yet completed let alone authorized. Instead, I discuss the biological and political factors associated with managing the zoo population to produce cats suitable for release and with related factors, such as selection of release site and design of the proposed breeding and release center."


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  • : Le retour du tigre en Europe: le blog d'Alain Sennepin
  • : Les tigres et autres grands félins sauvages ont vécu en Europe pendant la période historique.Leur retour prochain est une nécessité politique et civilisationnelle.
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