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18 janvier 2013 5 18 /01 /janvier /2013 08:17

L'AVENIR DES TIGRES DE SUMATRA PASSE PAR UNE EXTENSION DES ZONES DE "CONCESSIONS FORESTIERES" PRESERVEES DE L'EXPLOITATION. CECI CONCERNE NOTAMMENT LES 14,5 MILLIONS D'HECTARES DE TOURBIERES, COEUR DE L'HABITAT DU TIGRE DE LA PLUS GRANDE ÎLE D'INDONESIE.

Source : Mongabay.com du 15 janvier.Voir aussi en fin de page l'article détaillé établissant la corrélation entre destruction des milieux naturels et intensification des conflits mortels pour tous entre tigres et êtres humains (Mongabay.com du 10 janvier).

Despite opposition from the powerful palm oil industry, Indonesia should extend its two-year moratorium on new logging and agricultural concessions in carbon-dense peatlands and forests, said a top forestry official.

Indonesia's moratorium, which is set to expire this May, was signed in 2011 under a $1 billion climate change mitigation agreement with Norway. The moratorium has made 14.5 million hectares of peatlands and forests off-limits to new concessions. It aims to encourage agricultural expansion in degraded, non-forest areas which cover vast extents of Indonesia. But for now its fate is uncertain.

Hadi Daryanto, secretary general of the Ministry of Forestry, told Reuters that he hopes the moratorium would be extended.

"The ministry of forestry would like to continue the moratorium and provide degraded land for business," said Daryanto. "We have had success with the moratorium."

The moratorium has faced heavy criticism from both environmentalists and industries most closely associated with deforestation. Green activists have complained that loopholes in the moratorium allow companies to continue exploiting forests while the palm oil, pulp and paper, and logging sectors have balked at any measure that restricts their expansion.

The effect of the moratorium to date is uncertain. Unlike Brazil, Indonesia does not release regular updates of deforestation and forest degradation. Nonetheless the moratorium has ushered in a movement toward more transparency around land use and renewed scrutiny of enforcement of Indonesia's environmental laws. Last year, in a case that was widely seen as a litmus test for Indonesia's willingness to enforce the moratorium, a court revoked the operating permit of a palm oil company found to be flagrantly violating the moratorium by clearing protected peatlands in Sumatra.

Still deforestation and forest degradation account for the bulk of Indonesia's total emissions. If the country hopes to meet its 2020 target for reducing emissions, it must move toward curtailing conversion of peat swamps and rainforests for plantations.

 

Destruction of rainforests and peatlands on the Indonesian island of Sumatra by the pulp and paper industry is worsening conflict between tigers and humans, including fatal encounters, alleges a new report published by a coalition of environmental groups in Riau, Sumatra.

Eyes on the Forest (EoF) — an alliance that includes Friends of the Earth (Walhi) Riau, Jikalahari, and WWF-Indonesia — published SMG/APP deforestation and deadly human-tiger conflict as part of its ongoing campaign to highlight conversion of natural forests in Riau province for industrial timber plantations. The report looks specifically at five concessions operated by companies that supply wood to Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) and its corporate parent, the Sinar Mas Group (SMG). The report says that the majority of human-tiger conflict incidents in Riau between 1997 and 2009 occurred within these concessions.

"Most violent conflict between people and tigers in Sumatra’s Riau Province between 1997 and 2009 occurred near deforestation sites operated by wood suppliers for Asia Pulp & Paper of the Sinar Mas Group (SMG/APP). At least 147 of 245 or 60% of all conflicts, resulting in 27 human deaths (49%), 8 tiger deaths (53%) and 14 tiger capture & relocations (82%) occurred in an area called Senepis, where five APP/SMG supplier concessions have been clearing natural forest since 1999."


2009-2011 human tiger conflict locations in Kerumutan, Riau Province. According to the report, "the locations of three additional incidents in August-September 2011 could not be exactly identified"


The report alleges that conflict has continued since 2009, including nine human deaths and three dead tigers. Seven people suffered injuries, while one "problem" tiger was taken into captivity. That tiger, named "Bima", now lives in a zoo on the island of Java under the care of a team from the Ministry of Forestry. APP says the plan is to release the tiger back into the wild.

"Bima will be released at Riau Tiger Sanctuary by the Ministry of Forestry team," Aida Greenbury, APP's vice president of sustainability, told mongabay.com. "The MoF team is currently in the process [of assessing] the release site."

However, Eyes on the Forest is critical of APP's handling of the tiger issue. The report argues that despite three human fatalities in the Pulau Muda forest management unit, APP has continued to source wood from the clearing of high conservation value forest (HCVF) that serves as key tiger habitat.

"APP has self-congratulated itself to solve human wildlife conflicts by removing from the wild critically endangered species that cause trouble. But that trouble appears to be a direct result of the company’s own operations: large-scale deforestation of critical tiger habitats. Its self-portrayal as a 'tiger conservation' company appears to be one of the most cynical examples of greenwashing by SMG/APP to date."



Sumatran tiger killed in an APP supplier’s concession inside the UNESCO Biosphere reserve’s buffer zone in September 2010
Sumatran tiger killed in an APP supplier’s concession inside the UNESCO Biosphere reserve’s buffer zone in September 2010 © WWF-Indonesia


APP says it abides by Indonesian forestry laws. It recently established a "Sustainability Roadmap" which calls for a phasing out of fiber sourced through clearance of rainforests and peatlands. But environmental groups — including Eyes on the Forest — have been sharply critical of the plan, noting that it further delays targets for ending rainforest conversion.

Sumatra lost 7.5 million hectares of forest between 1990 and 2010. Conversion for palm oil and pulp and paper production is the biggest driver of deforestation in Sumatra.

Riau Province accounted for 42 percent of forest loss on the island, which is the only place on Earth where rhinos, orangutans, elephants, and tigers can be found living in the same habitat.

The Sumatran tiger is critically endangered due to habitat loss and poaching on the island of Sumatra. It is Indonesia last tiger species — the Javan and Bali tigers are believed to have gone extinct during the 20th century.

APP is one of Indonesia's largest pulp and paper producers. Operating in areas rich with biodiversity and rife with conflicting land claims, APP had struggled with allegations of environmental and human rights transgressions. Accordingly, in recent years APP suffered a number of high profile customer defections, which have made it more difficult for the company to meet debt obligations and raise capital for expansion. Nonetheless, APP's parent Sinar Mas is reportedly planning to develop a massive new pulp mill in South Sumatra. It is unclear whether there are sufficient plantation stocks to meet expected fiber demand, raising fears that the new mill could drive further deforestation.

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18 janvier 2013 5 18 /01 /janvier /2013 06:09

LE CORPS D'UN  TIGRE A ETE RETROUVE HIER, APRES CELUI D'UN JEUNE DECOUVERT LE 6 JANVIER, ET L'ABATTAGE D'UNE TIGRESSE PRESUMEE DANGEREUSE LE 12. Source: Times of India, aujourd'hui. Et en fin d'article, réactualisation dans le Times of India du 19 janvier.

NAGPUR: Maharashtra, that calls itself the 'best tiger state', lost another tiger on Thursday. This is the third tiger death in the past 12 days. On January 6, a tiger was found dead near Ekara (Bhuj) in South Brahmapuri in Chandrapur. On January 12, a problem tigress was shot dead in Sonzari near Navegaon National Park and on January 17, putrefied carcass of a young tiger was found in Palora beat in Deolapar range in buffer of Pench tiger reserve.

The spot where the tiger was found is 15km from Pench reserve but just 6km from Mansinghdeo sanctuary. Although exact cause of death is not known, tiger is suspected to have died of electrocution, thanks to the negligence of MSEDCL staff that once again did not report it. The tall claims of protection by forest staff were also exposed as the carcass lay in forest for 15 days without anyone spotting it.

According to sources, the putrefied carcass was found in compartment 582 in Harnakund nullah at 3pm. The tiger is young and lay 24 metres from a 11kv electric line passing over the spot. The area is 270 metres on left of Nagpur-Jabalpur highway. A source said skin of the tiger looks charred. An electric wire was also found near the spot indicating that it must have been connected to 11kv line to kill wild animal. They also said there were cattle kills in the area where carcass was found.

However, P K Mahajan, deputy conservator of forests (DyCF), Nagpur division, said, "it is too early to say whether the animal died of poisoning or electrocution. Only a post-mortem, to be conducted on Friday, will reveal the cause. Portion below the tiger's abdomen was badly decomposed and we could know it was tiger only from the stripes on skin."

Honorary district wildlife warden Kundan Hate will be present as National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) representative and Sanjay Deshpande will represent chief wildlife warden SWH Naqvi during post mortem. Chief conservator of forest (CCF) and Pench field director M S Reddy, who too rushed to the spot, suggested calling in dog squad in Chandrapur to provide clues in such cases.

Interestingly, the incident came to light a day after a training session by Nitin Desai, Central India director of Wildlife Protection Society of India (WPSI), for forest staff and MSEDCL employees on Wednesday specifically about detecting electrocution cases of poaching. The drive was launched on Thursday. "Shockingly, not a single MSEDCL employee attended the training session perhaps knowing well that a tiger had died due to electrocution in Harnakund nullah," sources said.

"When crores of rupees are being spent to save tigers, the casual patrolling and protection from top to bottom seems disgusting. The head of the forest force (HoFF) has not called a meeting on protection of forest and wildlife demanded four months ago," alleged Siraj Patel, central president of Maharashtra State Forest Guards, Forest Employees and Forest Labourers Union.

Mahajan admitted negligence on part of field staff who failed to notice the carcass of the tiger in 15 days.

 

Actualisation dans le Times of India du 19 janvier : les employés accusés de négligence ont été sanctionnés. Le tigre semble avoir été tué par un piège électrique destinée à un ongulé ...

 

NAGPUR: Chief conservator of forests (CCF) for Nagpur Circle SH Patil has ordered the suspension of two forest employees over the poaching of a tiger in Harnakund nullah in the buffer zone of Pench tiger reserve, 55km from Nagpur, on Thursday.

"The decomposing tiger carcass lay at the spot for over two weeks and the negligent field staff failed to notice it. They have to move in the entire beat once in 15 days, which they did not do," said Patil. Those suspended are forest guard BS Atkar and van majoor RD Uikey.

Patil said electrocution may have been the cause of the tiger's death, but the poachers were most probably targeting herbivores by laying the live wires.

Honorary district wildlife warden Kundan Hate and chief wildlife warden's representative Sanjay Deshpande also searched the area near Harnakund after the post mortem. They came across a bamboo with hooks, wires and wooden pegs fixed into the ground. "This indicates that poachers used the material to kill wild animals. This material was not noticed by the forest staff," Hate said.

"It is a clear case of poaching since the tiger's skull, nails, pelvic girdle bones and paws were missing. It also cannot be ruled out that the poachers killed the animal elsewhere and dumped it in the nullah to destroy evidence," said Hate.

Although the post mortem report is yet to be submitted, veterinary doctors from Deolapar, Hiwra and Ramtek were of the opinion that the tiger was electrocuted.

A dog trained to give leads in wildlife crimes did not prove to be of much help in the investigation since a lot of time had elapsed after the crime.

Hate also slammed MSEDCL officials, and suggested they should be booked for the death of the tiger. "The power company officials are not serious about the issue, and are not coordinating with the forest department in sharing tripping data," Hate said.

He added that power supply in the area tripped regularly during the night hours since January 1, but data was not given to the forest staff. It is also surprising that the forest staff did not know about the tiger's presence when villagers used to regularly sight the animal in the same forest.

A senior official said the electrocution theory is also strengthened by the death of a villager on January 2 due to electric shock. Radheshyam Wadhve of Khatta, 2km from the spot, had been electrocuted, said sources. It is now feared that when poachers saw Wadhve dead, they dumped his body on the highway to show he died in a road accident. Harnakund is just 270 metres away from the highway.

The tiger carcass was 15 days old and matches the period when Wadhve died. Deolapar police confirmed Wadhve's death near Harnakund, but said it was a case of accidental death. However, police admitted that those who reported the matter were evasive about how Wadhve died, but later claimed he was hit by a vehicle while returning from Ramtek.

"I'm investigating Wadhve's links too and will go to any length to crack the case," said AR Sheikh, range forest officer (RFO) of Deolapar.

Senior forest officials admitted that the newly promoted RFOs are ill-equipped to handle such exigencies, as they are yet to get experience, which comes over the years.

"It is really disturbing that despite getting promotions, better pay, good vehicles, necessary equipment and newly recruited staff, tigers continue to die a horrible death. The staff will have to change their mindset. You don't need guns to save tigers, but the right attitude," said young naturalists Vineet Arora and Haseeb Badar.

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18 janvier 2013 5 18 /01 /janvier /2013 05:30

CREATION DU PARC NATIONAL "BERINGIE" EN TCHOUKOTKA, ET PONT TERRESTRE AVEC LES ETATS - UNIS. Source : WWF Russie, hier.

 

Hier, le premier ministre russe Dmitri Medvedev a signé le décret de création du Parc national dans la partie orientale de la péninsule des Tchouktches. Celle - ci est composée de cinq parcelles d'une superficie totale de 18000 km2, dont 3000 sont marins. La péninsule abrite des sources chaudes, des sites archéologiques et du patrimoine historique et culturel, en premier lieu celui des Tchouktches et des Inuits. La région est aussi le centre de la biodiversité végétale, avec plus de 1000 espèces et sous espèces de plantes. Des animaux comme l'ours polaire, le mouflon d'Amérique, le morse du Pacifique, le saumon, sont également présents. Rodion Sivolobov, naturaliste de terrain qui vit dans la région depuis plus de 20 ans, pense que des tigres et des léopards des neiges se trouvent également en ces lieux (dossier transmis par Evgeny Kashkarov, avec photos d'empreintes, voir aussi articles sur ce blog : "Cette profusion qui vient" : 23 mai 2012, et "Etoiles polaires" du 3 décembre 2012).

 
La mise en place d'un pôle protégé va bientôt commencer côté américain, de même que la constitution du pont terrestre entre les deux territoires.


Il aura fallu plus de 20 ans pour finaliser les accords politiques et mettre sur pied les modalités concrètes pour cette forme de réunification de la Béringie. C'est en juin 1990 qu'URSS et USA avaient décidé d'organiser un parc international de la Tchoukotka et de l'Alaska, pour à la fois préserver la biodiversité exceptionnelle de la région, son complexe culturel unique, et assurer son développement socio - économique.


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17 janvier 2013 4 17 /01 /janvier /2013 08:37

... COMME TOUJOURS!

EN L'ABSENCE DE RESEAU STRUCTURE DE BRACONNAGE, LES TIGRES SEMBLENT DESORMAIS PROSPERER DANS LES FORÊTS D'INDE MERIDIONALE (Times of India, ce jour). LES TIGRES ADAPTENT LEUR TEMPORALITE QUAND ILS PARTAGENT L'ESPACE AVEC LES HOMMES : VOIR A LA FIN DE CETTE PAGE  LE RESUME D'UNE ETUDE SUR LE SUJET REALISEE AU NEPAL QUI MET EN LUMIERE LES STRATEGIES DE COHABITATION NON CONFLICTUELLES ADOPTEES PAR LES FELINS.

axO

 

COIMBATORE: Tigers are thriving in the forests of southern India, thanks to the absence of organised poaching gangs here. Recent studies have confirmed that tiger reserves in the south have a better record of conservation that the northern reserves. Officials indicate that the tiger population in the south is on the rise because poaching is low key and less organised.

It's not that tiger killings aren't reported at all. Officials contend that most of these are 'incidental crimes' committed by those who get a tiger while trying to kill a deer. They also get caught while trying to sell the tiger skins.

However, poaching is a serious problem in many parts of the country. Traps to capture the animals are readily available in the open in Orissa and Assam. Demand for tiger products too is high in countries like China where tiger bones are used to prepare native medicines. There are tiger farms in China, but the wild tigers are in more demand than those at the farms.

In states like Madhya Pradesh and Haryana, there are certain tribes like the Bawarias, Behelias, and the Katnis, who are gypsies who reportedly poach as well as trade in tigers. The poachers use methods which are simple but painful. They lay traps which are kept on paths to spots frequented by the animals like a pond. Tigers get trapped in them and poachers who lie in waiting nearby kill them and remove their skin and other parts. They know the mechanisms of poaching and the routes which makes detection impossible without precise intelligence.

According to the census data of the tigers released in 2011 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, there are around 1,706 tigers in the country out of which 534 tigers are in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Karnataka with 300 tigers has the highest number of tigers among Indian states.

 

STRATEGIES DES GRANDS FELINS NEPALAIS POUR ASSURER UNE COHABITATION PACIFIQUE AVEC LES COMMUNAUTES HUMAINES DANS UN ESPACE COMMUN (étude publiée l'été dernier).

Tigers don’t have a reputation for being accommodating, but a new study indicates that the feared and revered carnivores in and around a world-renowned park in Nepal are taking the night shift to better coexist with their human neighbors.

The revelation that tigers and people are sharing exactly the same space – such as the same roads and trails – of Chitwan National Park flies in the face of long-held convictions in tiger conservation circles. It also underscores how successful conservation efforts need sciences that takes into account both nature and humans.

“As our planet becomes more crowded, we need to find creative solutions that consider both human and natural systems,” said Jianguo “Jack” Liu, who with PhD student Neil Carter and three Nepalese scholars wrote a paper published in this week’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). “Sustainability can be achieved if we have a good understanding of the complicated connections between both worlds. We’ve found something very interesting is happening in Nepal that holds promise for both humans and nature to thrive.”

Liu is the director of the Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability (CSIS) at Michigan State University, where Carter studies.

Conventional conservation wisdom is that tigers need lots of people-free space, which often leads to people being relocated or their access to resources compromised to make way for tigers.


Neil Carter aligns a camera trap in ChitwanCarter spent two seasons setting motion-detecting camera traps for tigers, their prey and people who walk the roads and trails of Chitwan, both in and around the park. Chitwan, nestled in a valley of the Himalayas, is home to about 121 tigers. People live on the park’s borders, but rely on the forests for ecosystem services such as wood and grasses. They venture in on dirt roads and narrow footpaths to be ‘snared’ on Carter’s digital memory cards. The roads also are used by military patrols to thwart would-be poachers.

Carter’s analysis of the thousands of images show that people and tigers are walking the same paths, albeit at different times. Tigers typically move around at all times of the day and night, monitoring their territory, mating and hunting. But in the study area, Carter and his colleagues discovered that the tigers had become creatures of the night. The camera’s infrared lights document a pronounced shift toward nocturnal activity. People in Nepal generally avoid the forests at night. Essentially, quitting time for people signals starting time for Chitwan’s tigers. So far, it appears tiger population numbers are holding steady despite an increase in human population size.

“It’s a very fundamental conflict over resources,” Carter said. “Tigers need resources, people need the same resources. If we operate under the traditional wisdom that tigers only can survive with space dedicated only for them, there would always be conflict. If your priority is people, tigers lose out. If yourWomen gathering grass in Chitwan priority is tigers, people lose out.

“Conditions for tigers in Chitwan are good,” he continued. “Prey numbers are high, forests outside the park are regenerating, and poaching of tigers and their prey is relatively low. However, people of different stripes, including tourists and local residents, frequent the forests of Chitwan. Tigers need to use the same space as people if they are to have a viable long-term future. What we’re learning in Chitwan is that tigers seem to be adapting to make it work.”

Carter’s cameras give a rare look at activity.  Tigers globally may be out of sight, but not out of mind. Since the start of the 20th century, the world’s population of wild tigers has dropped by 97 percent to approximately 3,000 individuals. The world’s remaining tigers are being pushed into small spaces, and being able to share that space with humans is a critical survival skill.

“There appears to be a middle ground where you might actually be able to protect the species at high densities and give people access to forest goods they need to live,” Carter said. “If that’s the case, then this can happen in other places, and the future of tigers is much brighter than it would be otherwise.”

 

COMMENTAIRE DE SHAITANA KRISHNA (MONGABAY, 29 JANVIER) - qui renforce la nécessité des protocoles de capture/recapture, effarouchement et autres méthodes non létales (voir "Apprentissage véritable" du 6 février).

Nepal's Chitwan National Park was the site of a study, published in September 2012 by Carter and others, which concluded that, tigers coexist with humans at fine spatial scales. This paper has ignited a scientific debate regarding its implications for large carnivore conservation worldwide, with scientists at institutions worldwide questioning the validity of claims of coexistence. At the foundation of this debate, perhaps, is the unresolved question, "what is coexistence"? For some, 'coexistence' is a situation of mutual well-being, devoid of conflict. Carter and colleagues equate coexistence to humans and tigers using the same spatial locations, albeit at different times of the day. Whether such a definition, bereft of other influences, including dispersal, human-wildlife conflict and human perceptions of tigers is appropriate for the purposes of a conservation paradigm needs to be re-examined.

Tigers have been studied at Chitwan National Park since the 1970s and there is a rich body of knowledge on various aspects of their biology. Eminent carnivore biologist, Professor Melvin E Sunquist, noted that while tigers in Chitwan were mostly active at night, some daytime activity also occurred. The tigers, he concluded were matching their activity patterns with that of their prey. Tigers do not take the 'night shift' at Chitwan National Park just to 'coexist' with people, they have, in fact, evolved so. There is evidence that tigers are avoiding people in other ways. During the day, Carter and his colleagues found that tigers were four times more active inside the Park, which has fewer people as compared to outside the Park where there are more people. Moreover, the chances of detecting a tiger increased in areas further away from human settlements, perhaps indicating lower tiger activity with an increment in human presence. Moreover, tiger densities in these areas are 65-75% less than the density of 18 tigers per 100 km2 reported by Adam Barlow and colleagues in a different part of Chitwan! Thus avoidance was clearly occurring in space.

A clue to the low tiger densities in these areas lies in the mechanism of tiger dispersal. Sub-adult tigers or transients, leave their natal area and stake their claim to a piece of forest they can call home. Dispersal is a period of high risk in the lives of these territorial animals. Long-term tiger biologist Professor James L. David Smith studied tiger dispersal at Chitwan and found that while almost all female sub-adults established territories next to their mothers, male sub-adults moved away to poorer quality habitats, often coming into conflict with humans. Eventually, out of the ten young male tigers Professor Smith closely studied, only four survived. Such areas where a considerable number of tiger deaths occur are 'sinks' for tiger populations. A landscape comprising such 'sinks' in addition to regions of high survival for the species, or 'sources', forms the basis of the current conservation strategy for the species. Senior scientist at Wildlife Conservation Society, Dr. Ullas Karanth, warns that confusing human-dominated 'sinks' with 'sources' could sound the death knell for this endangered species.

A crucial obstacle to the consideration of coexistence as a conservation strategy in the Chitwan landscape is the high incidence of human-tiger conflict around the park. A study undertaken by Bhim Bahadur Gurung and colleagues suggests that as many as ninety people have been killed by tigers in the Chitwan landscape in the last three decades, while up to 20 tigers have been killed or captured as a management intervention by park authorities in the same period. The trend indicates that the incidence of conflict is increasing and human casualties attributed to tigers within the last decade at Chitwan were 9 times higher than casualties occurring in Bardia National Park. Bardia, also located in Nepal, is similar in size to Chitwan and has a comparable tiger density of 20 animals per 100 km2, as reported by Per Wegge and others. However, Bardia differs from Chitwan in one aspect; there is minimal overlap between tigers and humans, even in the buffer, reports biologist Babu Ram Bhattarai. The negative consequences of conflict in Chitwan is expressed in the perspectives of humans towards tigers and their conservation; in another study, Carter and colleagues report that 40% of the interviewees living adjacent to Chitwan National Park believe that, "tigers are a nuisance and that there is not enough room for both tigers and people in the nearby forests".

According to the BBC, increasing human-wildlife conflict in Nepal has resulted in government officials wanting to cap growth of wild animal populations in protected areas, including that of the already endangered tiger. In the face of these developments, mere spatial overlaps between humans and tigers cannot be touted as 'coexistence' in Chitwan. Research in multiple-use areas having implications for wildlife conservation and human well-being should reflect the on ground realities of both actors living in close proximity to each other.



CITATIONS: Varun R Goswami, Divya Vasudev, Divya Karnad, Y Chaitanya Krishna, Meghna Krishnadas, Milind Pariwakam, Tarun Nair, Anish Andheria, Sachin Sridhara, and Imran Siddiqui. 2013. Conflict of human-wildlife coexistence. PNAS 110(2): E108.

Abhishek Harihar, Pranav Chanchani, Rishi Kumar Sharma, Joseph Vattakaven, Sanjay Gubbi, Bivash Pandav, and Barry Noon. 2013. Conflating "co-occurrence" with "coexistence". PNAS 110(2): E109.

K Ullas Karanth, Arjun M Gopalaswamy, Krithi K Karanth, John Goodrich, John Seidensticker, and John G Robinson. 2013. Sinks as saviors: Why flawed inference cannot assist tiger recovery. PNAS 110(2): E110.

Carter, N. H., Shrestha, B. K., Karki, J. B., Pradhan, N. M. B., & Liu, J. 2013. Reply to Goswami et al., Harihar et al., and Karanth et al.: Fine-scale interactions between tigers and people. PNAS 110(2), E111-E112.

Carter, N. H., et al 2012. Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales. 10.1073/pnas.1210490109 PNAS September 18, 2012 vol. 109 no. 38 15360-15365



Chaitanya Krishna

 

 


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17 janvier 2013 4 17 /01 /janvier /2013 07:51

RUSSIE ET BENGLA DESH VONT RENFORCER LEUR COOPERATION POUR LA SAUVEGARDE DE LEURS GRANDS FELINS (QUELQUES CENTAINES DANS CHAQUE PAYS, VIVANT DANS DES  FORÊTS ALLUVIALES POUR LES UNS, DANS DE VASTES MANGROVES POUR LES AUTRES.

Source : site du Président de Russie

http://programmes.putin.kremlin.ru/en/tiger/news/22406

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17 janvier 2013 4 17 /01 /janvier /2013 05:26

L'IMPLICATION EFFECTIVE ET CONCRETE DE LA POLICE RUSSE DANS LA LUTTE CONTRE LE BRACONNAGE S'ACCROIT (source : Phoenix Fund, hier).

Cracking Down on Wildlife Trafficking

This news is excerpted from an official press release posted on   http://mvd.ru/news/item/774129/

Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation continues to take an active role in implementation of state policy aimed at protection of endangered species listed in the Russia’s Red Book.  Recently, a series of crime-prevention operations was held in the Russian Far East in order to prevent illegal capture and killing of rare and endangered animals, including the Amur tiger.

For example, a few days ago police officers discovered an Amur tiger skin illegally transported by train from Vladivostok to Khabarovsk. (See detail by RIA Novosti, at the end of this article). Experts suspect the skin to belong to that of a tiger cub less than 18 months old. A bullet hole in the skin indicates that the animal was probably killed by poachers. Now, police officers are conducting thorough investigation in order to identify people involved in that crime. The skin reportedly was bound for Moscow to make a good hunting trophy for sale.

Also, the other day a set of tiger bones were found by police in Vladivostok as a result of painstaking investigation. The parts of tiger skeleton were intended for sale and further use in traditional Asian medicine. 

 

VLADIVOSTOK, January 15 (RIA Novosti) - Police have found and seized the hide of an Amur tiger on a train in Russia’s Far East, the regional transport police department said on Tuesday.

“According to experts, the hide belonged to a young tiger aged about 18 months. A bullet hole in it clearly shows that the animal was poached,” the department’s press service said in a statement.

The hide of the animal, listed as endangered species on the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), was found in a conductor’s compartment on a train from Vladivostok to Khabarovsk.

The conductor said an unknown man had asked him to hand the bag to a recipient in Khabarovsk. Paying to train conductors in order to deliver parcels promptly is a common practice in Russia, despite efforts by railroad management to do away with it.

“It is known to police that the hide was being transported to Moscow, where it was to be turned into a hunting trophy and sold abroad,” the statement reads.

An investigation is underway to find the organizer and perpetrators of the crime.

The population of the Amur tiger, one of six extant tiger subspecies, found only in Russia’s Far East and in some areas of Northern China, currently stands at some 450. Experts estimate that from 30 to 50 Amur tigers are killed by poachers and irresponsible hunters every year. Only four tiger poachers have been convicted since the fall of the Soviet Union.

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16 janvier 2013 3 16 /01 /janvier /2013 06:12

UNE ZONE TAMPON A LA RESERVE DES LEOPARDS DE L'AMOUR A ETE MISE EN PLACE HIER (source : WWF Russie, aujourd'hui).

ohrannaya-zona-dlya-saita karta.std

UNE CONDITION SINE QUA NON POUR UNE PROTECTION EFFECTIVE.

Résolution de l'Administration du Primorsky Kraï le 15 Janvier 2013. Création d'une zone tampon au parc national

« Terre de Leopard ". Celle cicouvre 82 hectares de l'habitat du tigre de l'Amour et du léopard dans les zones adjacentes au parc national, ainsi qu' à celle du district Nadezhda Khasan et celui de l'Oussouri (district urbain) de Primorsky Krai.

 

Désormais, 360 000 hectares dans le sud ouest du Primorye sont des territoires appliquant des mesures de protection spéciale des tigres et des léopards.


 Pourquoi faut-il une zone tampon du parc national? Pour adoucir l'impact de l'activité humaine sur les prédateurs et les ongulés.
Elle ne prend pas la terre des propriétaires et des utilisateurs. Mais la zone de sécurité du régime impose des restrictions sur leurs activités et crée les conditions les plus favorables pour le léopard. Certaines de ces restrictions:

  * La chasse collective a lieu dans les zones de chasse, ne peut maintenant être effectuée qu'en présence d'une personne qualifiée parmi les chasseurs, responsable de tout ce qui se passe pendant la chasse.
    
* La présence des chiens, qui peuvent présenter un danger pour les jeunes léopards, est interdite dans la zone tampon.
    
* La chasse aux animaux à fourrure et aux tétras est permise dans la zone tampon du 1er Octobre au 12 Janvier  sans l'utilisation de pièges  parce que ces engins  peuvent causer la mort d'un jeune léopard.
    
* Des protocoles de dynamisation des populations d'ongulés (cerfs, chevreuils, sangliers), proies des tigres et des léopards, seront mises en place :  champs semés avec des cultures différentes, fertilisation des sols, protection hivernale...

 

Il est aussi prévu des plantations de forêts pour prévenir les incendies et reconstituer les ecosystèmes altérés, et des modifications des pratiques urbanistiques.
 camets-nejinskii foto--iz-atlasa-dalnevostochnogo-leoparda.

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15 janvier 2013 2 15 /01 /janvier /2013 09:56

UNE TIGRESSE SAUVAGE ET SON PETIT RÔDENT AUX ALENTOURS D'UN ZOO. Source : Times of India, ce jour.

BHUBANESWAR: A tigress and her cub reportedly spotted in Chandaka Sanctuary area last month are suspected to be moving around Nandankanan zoo for the last couple of days. The zoo authorities have found pugmarks of the Royal Bengal Tigress and the cub. However, they said there is nothing to panic as the animals have not been sighted.

"We have not issued any alert to visitors because the pugmarks were seen in the sanctuary area where visitors have no access. We are alert and have taken all steps to locate the animals first," said deputy director of Nandankanan C R Mishra.

The pugmarks were seen near the Lion's Safari and a dumping yard of the zoo where animal wastes are thrown. "After discovering the pug marks, we first ensured that the wild cats are not among our inmates. Since the tigress and her cub are from the wild they usually won't come out in the open during the day," said another senior zoo officer.

Forest officials had traced pugmarks of a tigress and a cub at several places in the Chandaka-Dampada sanctuary for the first time on December 24 and many times thereafter at Talabasta, Banra, Deras and Pithakata inside the sanctuary area. Divisional forest officer of Chandaka-Dampada sanctuary S N Mohapatra said, "Though we have seen pugmarks and got information from villagers that they were roaming in the forest, no one has seen them so far."

According to wildlife experts, it is definitely a piece of good news that the tiger has been adopting this as its new habitat. "This has been a new trend among tigers that they are travelling from one forest to another. Most probably the tigress has been displaced from its territory and not able to find its habitat. If it accepts Chandaka as its new home then it's really good news," said Lala A K Singh, a wildlife expert.

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15 janvier 2013 2 15 /01 /janvier /2013 09:32

LE LAC DES CYGNES...QUI NE GELE JAMAIS. Source : Siberian Times, hier.

 

The breathtaking real-life Swan Lake in Siberia

14 January 2013

These stunning images were taken by Russian photographer Alexander Tyryshkin on a unique Siberian lake that never freezes, no matter how cold the winter.

Locals say the first swans appeared here in 1967, and only 15 birds were recorded then. Now they number 350 annually with the numbers rising each year. Picture: Alex Tyryshkin

 

Most Whooper Swans fly much further south in search of a less harsh climate, but as the pictures show, January finds this stunning spot teeming with activity.

Its real name Svetloe Lake but to many locals it is known, not surprisingly, as Swan Lake. The nearby village - appropriately - is called Urozhainoe, which means 'Prolific'. 

'It was minus 25C when I was taking pictures of the swans', said Alexander, 30, who lives and works in this part of Siberia. 

'Svetloe' is a very special lake, fed by many warm springs that keep the water always above zero. Even when the air goes down to minus 40C, the water in the lake stays at around plus 5C or 6C.

'The name 'Svetloe' means 'Clear Lake' and the the waters are pristine and so transparent you can see all the way down to its depths. There are only two places in Russia where these Whooper Swans come for winter. This lake in Altai and another in the Anadyr district of Chukotka in the extreme east of the country. 

'These snow-white swans land here every December, though it is a fair recent phenomenon. 

Swan lake Siberia


Swan lake Siberia


Swan lake

People from the nearby village are very proud to have their own Swan Lake and treat the birds with enormous care and respect, and in return have the most rewarding swan songs (the bird is famous for its deep honking call) and the joy of watching them fly. Pictures: Alex Tyryshkin

 

'Locals say the first swans appeared here in 1967, and only 15 birds were recorded then. Now they number 350 annually with the numbers rising each year. 

'The birds leave for nesting to the northern polar areas of Siberia in March, and come back here with their young some nine months later. 

'Whooper Swans are extra cautious birds.  They need calm and quiet, so the access of people to the lake to see this remarkable sight is limited. 

'There is a special viewing point ten meters high with a panoramic view of the lake, built in a way that it doesn't disturb the birds. 

'There are also several floats designed specially for feeding the swans - they allow you to see these spectacular birds from a closer distance. 

Swan lake Siberia


Swan lake Siberia


Swan lake Siberia

Whooper Swans are extra cautious birds, needing calm and quiet, so the access of people to the lake to see this remarkable sight is limited. Pictures: Alex Tyryshkin

 

'People from the nearby village are very proud to have their own Swan Lake and treat the birds with enormous care and respect, and in return have the most rewarding swan songs (the bird is famous for its deep honking call) and the joy of watching them fly. 

'The Altai Region authorities protect Svetloe Lake as a part of the Swans' State Wildlife Preserve, which also acts as a big resting zone for hunting birds and animals during the hunting period. There is a team of keepers ensuring the non-stop feeding and security for all birds and animals. 

'The Whooper Swans are not the only birds to winter here. 

'Around 2,000 ducks also spend the coldest months with the swans - including the Mallard, the Goldeneye, the Redhead and the Tufted ducks, two kinds of Teals and Northern Pintails. Even the Grey Goose joins the flock'. 

Swan Lake Siberia


Swan Lake Siberia

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15 janvier 2013 2 15 /01 /janvier /2013 05:52

SUITE A L'ARTICLE "UN NOUVEL ORPHELIN", PUBLIE LE 10 JANVIER.

Source : Phoenix Fund, aujourd'hui 15 janvier..

 

Emergency Surgery To Save Tiger Cub

 


© Utyos Wildlife
Rehabilitation Centre 

On January 11th 2013, a 6-7-month-old female tiger cub named Svetlaya (Bright) underwent surgery at Utyos Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre. Only a day ago the young animal was rescued close to Svetlogorye village in the Russian Far East. The cub was reportedly extremely emaciated. Its right foreleg was injured after being caught in an illegal leg-hold trap. There were two lacerated wounds on its right foreleg with serious soft tissue injures. Finger bones were also traumatized. Vets put 27 stitches during a surgery. Now, the animal is kept under careful observation by Centre’s caretakers. We hope that the cub will completely recover after the surgery very soon.

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  • : Le retour du tigre en Europe: le blog d'Alain Sennepin
  • : Les tigres et autres grands félins sauvages ont vécu en Europe pendant la période historique.Leur retour prochain est une nécessité politique et civilisationnelle.
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